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Select All hepatic exploration Exploring something with your hands trying to figure out what it is (tectile exploration) stimulus caused by an external event, with energy applied sensation awareness of a stimulus perception awareness of a stimulus + internal construct of the sensory experience mechano, chemo, thermo, nocio what are some of the classifications of receptors? cutaneous where are exteroreceptors found? muscles/joints where are proprioceptors found? interoceptors What are receptors found in viscera called? a non neural structure surrounding the end of the fiber What makes a receptor encapsulated? rapidly adapting and slowly adapting What are the different rates of adaptation? pain What type of information is processed in the lateral area of the posterior root entry zone? descriminitive touch/proprioception What type of info is processed in the medial area of the posterior root entry zone? rapidly adapting (phasic) what type of receptors respond to sudden changes in stimulus energy and have a rapid decrease in action potentials frequency with constant stimulus? slowly adapting (tonic) what type of receptors continue to respond to continuous stimulus, and may have a slight increase or decrease in AP over time? altered channel sensitivity to prolonged stimulus, or filtering by non neural tissues What are some possible mechanisms for rapid adaptation? receptor density, receptor field size, or central processing What may affect the ability to localize a stimulus? Free nerve endings What type of receptors are terminations of C and A(d) fibers, unencapsulated, slowly adapting and found in most tissues/organs? nocioceptors what type of receptors respond to stimuli that can damage tissue? tonic activity constantly active sending information yes are thermoreceptors and mechanoreceptors tonicly active? mechanoreceptors what type of receptors process descriminitive tactile sensations? AB fibers What type of fibers innervate cutaneous mechanoreceptors? Merkel endings What type of cutaneous mechanoreceptor deals with form and texture perception (points, edges, curves)? Finger tips Where is the highest density of Merkel endings found? Meissner corpuscles What type of cutaneous mechanoreceptors deal with the detection of course form, flutter or motion across the skin such as an object slipping/grip? slowly are merkel endings slowly or rapidly adapting? rapidly are meissner corpuscles slowly or rapidly adapting? small receptive fields Why are merkel endings and meissner corpuscles so highly descrimitive? Ruffini endings Which type of cutaneous mechanoreceptors detect joint position and direction of object motion if there is skin stretch? slowly are Ruffini endings slowly or rapidly adapting? deep in skin Where are Ruffini endings found? Pacinian corpuscles What type of cutaneous mechanoreceptors help detect texture, particularly through a tool? rapidly are pacinian corpuscles slowly or rapidly adapting? deep in skin Where are Pacinian corpuscles found? very large describe the receptive field for pacinian corpuscles large describe the receptive field for Ruffini endings hair follicle receptors What type of receptors are commonly used to detect light touch and non-descriminitive touch? Frequency of AP and number of receptors activated What may help determine stimulus intensity? resolution descrimination between two closely placed stimuli high does descriminitive touch have low or high resolution? receptor density and size of receptor fields What affects resolution? less More convergence leads to ________ descrimination periphery to CNS Where does a first order neuron go? tract cell to thalamus Where does a second order neuron go? thalamus to cortex Where does a third order neuron go? periphery to cerebellum Where does a 2 neuron pathway travel from and to? decreased Greater convergence leads to __________ resolution. amplification divergence inhibition and facilitation What helps enhance signal to noise ratio, and filter out background noise? low does the ALS have low or high resolution? high do the posterior columns have low or high resolution? cutaneous mechanoreceptors, temperature, some pain What type of info do areas 3b and 1 of the primary sensory cortex receive? cutaneous and deep receptors, including proprioceptors What type of receptors send info to area 3a and 2 of the primary sensory cortex? VPL and VPM What are the major thalamic afferents to the primary sensory area? contralateral hemianesthesia What might a lesion to the primary sensory cortex result in? astereognosis inability to decide what an object is by feel process pain info, and memory of sensory info What are the primary functions of the secondary sensory cortex? VPI, VM, PO, VPL, VPM The secondary sensory cortex receives info from what thalamic nuclei? integration of sensory info What is the primary sensory function of the posterior parietal association cortex? non dominant hemisphere lesions to the posterior parietal association cortex are most pronounced when the lesion is where? apraxia no motor deficits, but lack of ability to put motor patterns together trigeminal nerve what nerve is primarily responsible for sensory info from the face/cranium? facial, glossopharyngeal, vagus What other 3 nerves contribute sensory info from the face? spinal trigeminal, principal sensory, mesencephalic What three nuclei are associated with the trigeminal nerve? pars caudalis Which portion of the spinal trigeminal nucleus deals with pain and temp info? pars interpolaris which section of the spinal trigeminal nucleus deals with pain info from the oral cavity? tactile sensations (descriminitive) what type of info does the principal sensory nucleus receive? proprioception what type of info does the mesencephalic nucleus receive? crossed does the anterior trigeminothalamic tract have crossed or uncrossed projection? uncrossed does the posterior trigeminothalamc tract have crossed or uncrossed projections? anterior and posterior spinocerebellar tracts What tracts are the primary pathways for lower extremity unconcious proprioception? nucleus of clarke Where does the posterior spinocerebellar tract originate in the spinal cord? anterior which spinocerebellar tract crosses twice? cuneocerebellar pathway What is the primary pathway for upper extremity unconcious proprioception info? accessory cuneate nucleus Where does the cuneocerebellar pathway originate in the caudal medulla?