## 2 Maps and Models

##### Created by:

harveycj  on February 23, 2012

##### Description:

VA Standards of Learning ES.1

Vocabulary related to longitude, latitude, maps, models, and topography.

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# 2 Maps and Models

 mapa flat, 2-D representation of the earth's surface (or part of it) and features
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#### Definitions

map a flat, 2-D representation of the earth's surface (or part of it) and features
model a simplified representation of an object, process, or phenomenon, used as a tool or bases for investigation
globe a sphere, or round model, that represents earth's entire surface
hemisphere half of the earth usually referred to as eastern or western; northern or southern
latitude imaginary lines running horizontal east to west parallel to the equator used to measure distance in degrees north and south, from 0 degrees at the equator to 90 degrees at the north and south poles
longitude imaginary lines running vertical north to south between the poles used to measure distance in degrees east and west, from 0 degrees at the prime meridian to 180 degrees east and west
horizontal lying flat or going straight across from side to side
vertical running straight up and down; upright
meridian a line of longitude
parallel a line of latitude
equator The middle line of latitude, measuring 0 degrees and dividing the globe into N and S hemisphere.
prime meridian the imaginary line that divides the earth in the eastern and western hemisphere, at 0 degrees longitude, running through Greenwich, England
international date line is an imaginary line of longitude generally 180° (degrees) east or west of the Prime Meridian, where each new day begins
coordinate system a standard grid, composed of lines of latitude and longitude, used to determine the absolute location of any object, place, or feature on the earth's surface; coordinates are written as (latitude, longitude)
plotting the process of finding or drawing a point on a coordinate plane or graph using a pair of numbers
compass rose A tool on a map showing cardinal (N,E,S,W) and intermediate (NE,SE,NW,SW) directions.
map scale Relationship between distances on a map and distances on Earth's surface that can be represented as a ratio or as a small bar divided into sections
landform a physical feature on Earth's surface
geography the study of the distribution and interaction of physical and human features on the earth
cartographer a person who makes maps
projection a representation of the spherical earth on the flat plane of a map
mercator projection map that has parallel lines of latitude and longitude in which land masses, shapes, and directions are correct, but areas as you move further north and south of the equator become distorted; most commonly used map that is especially good for planes and ships
gnomonic projection a map made as if paper had been laid on a point on Earth's surface, shows the polar regions but distorts the equator regions
polyconic projection a map made as if a cone of paper had been wraped around the earth; lines of longituted and latitude are curved and most landmasses have their true shape and size in relation to each other; uselful in mapping large areas of land that fall in the middle latitude, such as the US
distortion a change in the shape, size, or position of a place when it is shown on a map; loss of accuracy, misrepresentation or twisting out of shape
global positioning system (GPS) a system that determines the precise position of something on earth through a series of satellites, tracking stations, and recievers
satellite imagery Images of the earth taken from orbiting satellites. Images can be taken in a variety of forms so as to detect specific information about the earth, vegetation and other types of land cover
surveyor a person who measures the boundaries and elevations of land or structures
topography the shape or natural and man-made physical features of the land determined by elevation, relief, and landforms.
elevation height above sea level
slope a measure of the steepness of the land using the change in vertical position/rise over the change in horizontal position/run
gradient the change in elevation over a given distance
sea level level of the ocean's surface (especially that halfway between mean high and low tide)
profile a side view or a vertical section of the Earth's crust showing the different horizons or layers
contour lines a line on a topographic map that connects points of equal elevation
contour intervals The difference in elevation from one contour line to the next.
benchmark a point of reference; a known point of elevation
hachure line small dashed lines showing a downward change in elevation, ditch, crater or hole
terrain landscape or surface features of the earth
relief map type of physical map that shows changes in elevation or height above sea level with shading or raised surface
geographic north points to the north pole
geomagnetic north compass points to the geomagnetic poles
where magnetic fields poles are
compass an instrument for showing directions, consisting of a needle or compass card that points to the north magnetic pole, which is near the North Pole.
magnetic declination the angle or difference between geographic and magnetic north
ocean floor topography continental margins, deep-ocean basins, and mid-ocean ridges
bathymetric map a map of the ocean showing the contours of the ocean floor and its geologic features
geologic features features that influence landscapes and create drainage patterns
geologic time a scale of time based on the age of the Earth and the geologic events that shaped and continue to change the planet; a time scale that extends back approximately 4.6 billion years

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