|riotous||characterized by wild and uncontrolled behavior|
|supercilious||behaving or looking as though one thinks one is superior to others|
|viscid||having a glutinous consistency; sticky, adhesive|
|mettle||courage and fortitude|
|compulsion||the action or state of forcing or being forced to do something; constraint|
|timorous||full of fear; timid|
|haughtily||arrogantly superior and disdainful|
|sumptuous||splendid and expensive looking|
|nebulous||hazy, vague, indistinct, or confused|
|vilipend||to regard or treat as of little value or account or to vilify, depreciate|
|sporadic||occurring at irregular intervals or only in a few places; scattered or isolated|
|denizen||an inhabitant or occupant of a particular place|
|Melodious||producing or having a pleasant tune|
|Bandy||to pass from one to another or back and forth; give and take|
|Altruistic||unselfishly concerned for or devoted to the welfare of others|
|Copse||a thicket of small trees or bushes; a small wood|
|Cleave||to adhere closely; stick; cling|
|Spires||a tapering conical or pyramidal structure on the top of a building, typically a church tower.|
|Disconcerting||causing one to feel unsettled.|
|Retribution||punishment that is considered to be morally right and fully deserved|
|Wan||pale and giving the impression of illness or exhaustion|
|Transcendent||going beyond ordinary means|
|Benediction||the utterance or bestowing of a blessing, esp. at the end of a religious service|
|Defer||to yield or submit to|
|Ethereal||extremely delicate and light in a way that seems too perfect for this world|
|Sagacious||having or showing keen mental discernment and good judgment|
|Denotation||the literal meaning of a word|
|Connotation||the implied or associative meaning of a word|
|Euphemism||an indirect, less offensive way of saying something that is considered unpleasant|
|Allusion||a reference to something literary, mythological, or historical|
|Syntax||the manner in which words are arranged by a writer into sentences|
|Apostrophe||the act of speaking directly to an absent or imaginary person, or to some abstraction.|
|Invective||an intensely vehement, highly emotional verbal attack|
|Aphorism||a concise statement which expresses succinctly a general truth or idea, often using rhyme or balance|
|Didactic||Something which has as its primary purpose to teach or instinct|
|Litotes||a type of understatement in which something affirmative is expressed by negating its opposite|
|Tone||the attitude of a writer, usually implied, toward the subject or audience|
|Allegory||a sustained metaphor continued throughout a piece or dialogue|
|Antithesis||juxtaposition of contrasting words or ideas (often, although not always, in parallel structure)|
|Dilemma||offering to an opponent a choice between 2 unfavorable alternatives|
|Enigma||Obscuring one's meaning by presenting it within a riddle or by means of metaphors that purposefully challenge the reader or listener to understand|
|Hyperbole||Rhetorical exaggeration. Often accomplished via comparisons, similes, and metaphors|
|Isocolon||A series of similarly structured elements having the same length. A kind of parallelism|
|Oxymoron||placing two ordinary opposing terms adjacent to one another. A compressed paradox|
|Parallelism||Similarity of structure in a pair or series of related words, phrases, or clauses|
|Polysyndeton||Employing many conjunctions between clauses, often slowing the tempo or rhythm|
|Proverb||One of several terms describing short pithy sayings|
|Sarcasm||Use of mockery, verbal taunts, or bitter irony|
|Tapinosis||giving a name to something which diminishes it in importance|
|Appeal to Flattery|| Person A is flattered by person B.|
Person B makes claim X.
Therefore X is true.
|Post Hoc|| A occurs before B.|
Therefore A is the cause of B.
|Appeal to Fear|| Y is presented (a claim that is intended to produce fear).|
Therefore claim X is true (a claim that is generally, but need not be, related to Y in some manner).
|Begging the Question|| Premises in which the truth of the conclusion is claimed or the truth of the conclusion is assumed (either directly or indirectly).|
Claim C (the conclusion) is true.
|False Dilemma|| Either claim X is true or claim Y is true (when X and Y could both be false).|
Claim Y is false.
Therefore claim X is true.
|Red Herring|| Topic A is under discussion.|
Topic B is introduced under the guise of being relevant to topic A (when topic B is actually not relevant to topic A).
Topic A is abandoned.
|Slippery Slope|| Event X has occurred (or will or might occur).|
Therefore event Y will inevitably happen.
|Bandwagon|| Person P is pressured by his/her peers or threatened with rejection.|
Therefore person P's claim X is false
|Poisoning the Well|| Unfavorable information (be it true or false) about person A is presented.|
Therefore any claims person A makes will be false
|Hasty Generalization|| Sample S, which is too small, is taken from population P.|
Conclusion C is drawn about Population P based on S.
|Peremptorily||insisting on immediate attention or obedience|
|Ad Hominem Tu Quoque||Person A makes claim X. Person B asserts that A's action or past claims are inconsistent with the truth of claim X. Therefore X is false.|
|Ad Hominem||Person A makes claim X. Person B makes an attack on person A. Therefore A's claim is false|
|Restrictio||making an execution to a previously made statement. Restricting or limiting what has already been said|
|straw man||weak counter argument thats easy to prove wrong|