characterized by wild and uncontrolled behavior
behaving or looking as though one thinks one is superior to others
having a glutinous consistency; sticky, adhesive
courage and fortitude
the action or state of forcing or being forced to do something; constraint
full of fear; timid
arrogantly superior and disdainful
splendid and expensive looking
hazy, vague, indistinct, or confused
to regard or treat as of little value or account or to vilify, depreciate
occurring at irregular intervals or only in a few places; scattered or isolated
an inhabitant or occupant of a particular place
producing or having a pleasant tune
to pass from one to another or back and forth; give and take
unselfishly concerned for or devoted to the welfare of others
a thicket of small trees or bushes; a small wood
to adhere closely; stick; cling
a tapering conical or pyramidal structure on the top of a building, typically a church tower.
causing one to feel unsettled.
punishment that is considered to be morally right and fully deserved
pale and giving the impression of illness or exhaustion
going beyond ordinary means
the utterance or bestowing of a blessing, esp. at the end of a religious service
to yield or submit to
extremely delicate and light in a way that seems too perfect for this world
having or showing keen mental discernment and good judgment
the literal meaning of a word
the implied or associative meaning of a word
an indirect, less offensive way of saying something that is considered unpleasant
a reference to something literary, mythological, or historical
the manner in which words are arranged by a writer into sentences
the act of speaking directly to an absent or imaginary person, or to some abstraction.
an intensely vehement, highly emotional verbal attack
a concise statement which expresses succinctly a general truth or idea, often using rhyme or balance
Something which has as its primary purpose to teach or instinct
a type of understatement in which something affirmative is expressed by negating its opposite
the attitude of a writer, usually implied, toward the subject or audience
a sustained metaphor continued throughout a piece or dialogue
juxtaposition of contrasting words or ideas (often, although not always, in parallel structure)
offering to an opponent a choice between 2 unfavorable alternatives
Obscuring one's meaning by presenting it within a riddle or by means of metaphors that purposefully challenge the reader or listener to understand
Rhetorical exaggeration. Often accomplished via comparisons, similes, and metaphors
A series of similarly structured elements having the same length. A kind of parallelism
placing two ordinary opposing terms adjacent to one another. A compressed paradox
Similarity of structure in a pair or series of related words, phrases, or clauses
Employing many conjunctions between clauses, often slowing the tempo or rhythm
One of several terms describing short pithy sayings
Use of mockery, verbal taunts, or bitter irony
giving a name to something which diminishes it in importance
Appeal to Flattery
Person A is flattered by person B.
Person B makes claim X.
Therefore X is true.
A occurs before B.
Therefore A is the cause of B.
Appeal to Fear
Y is presented (a claim that is intended to produce fear).
Therefore claim X is true (a claim that is generally, but need not be, related to Y in some manner).
Begging the Question
Premises in which the truth of the conclusion is claimed or the truth of the conclusion is assumed (either directly or indirectly).
Claim C (the conclusion) is true.
Either claim X is true or claim Y is true (when X and Y could both be false).
Claim Y is false.
Therefore claim X is true.
Topic A is under discussion.
Topic B is introduced under the guise of being relevant to topic A (when topic B is actually not relevant to topic A).
Topic A is abandoned.
Event X has occurred (or will or might occur).
Therefore event Y will inevitably happen.
Person P is pressured by his/her peers or threatened with rejection.
Therefore person P's claim X is false
Poisoning the Well
Unfavorable information (be it true or false) about person A is presented.
Therefore any claims person A makes will be false
Sample S, which is too small, is taken from population P.
Conclusion C is drawn about Population P based on S.
insisting on immediate attention or obedience
Ad Hominem Tu Quoque
Person A makes claim X. Person B asserts that A's action or past claims are inconsistent with the truth of claim X. Therefore X is false.
Person A makes claim X. Person B makes an attack on person A. Therefore A's claim is false
making an execution to a previously made statement. Restricting or limiting what has already been said
weak counter argument thats easy to prove wrong