was in family line of bad rulers. From the family carlingians, rulers of the Franks.
made up a region in central Italy that was under the control of the Pope
officials that would rule parts of the empire in place of the emperor
planning the course across the sea
long Icelandic stories about great heroes and events
led the vikings to North America, where they settled on the eastern shore of what is now Canada.
highly skilled soldiers who fought on horseback.
land given to a knight for is service
anyone who accepted a fief
the system of exchanging land for service
a knight's promise to remain loyal to his lord and not turn against him
related to the feudal system, built around manors
workers who were legally tied to the manor on which they worked.
Alfred the Great
the king of Wessex in southern england, ended the Vikings campaign in England around 878
William the Conquerer
Norman distant cousin of the dead king in 1066. Was angered that he didn't get the crown so he built an army and conquered england
a book that William used to create a central tax system for England
Eleanor of Aquitaine
a powerful French duchess, who married Hungry II
document that made provisions that restricted the king's power.
the governing body made up of nobility, clergy and middle class that still makes England's laws today
on the the first capetians to hold power in France
Otto the Great
the duke of Saxony, gained enough support from other German nobles to succeed his father, Henry I
or reconquest. Christian states embarked on a series of campaigns to retake the Iberian Peninsula.
is a person's level of devotion to his or her religion
or papal term in office
Pope Gregory VII
during his time as pope the issue of clergy selection became critical
Holy Roman emperor at the time of Pope Gregory VII
was a result of the Viking, Magyar, and Muslim invasion kings found themselves unable to defend small villages or land of nobles from attacks