Social Psychology Exam 1 Ch 1-4

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concepts

Myers discusses how Maslow's description of "self-actualized" people was based on a sample he personally selected. Had he selected other people to describe, his ensuing list of self-actualization characterizations may have been different. This is an example of how values can influence

take place in a labratory

The author of the text reported that two-thirds of social psychology experiments

random assignment

Putting participants in one of two conditions by flipping a coin illustrates

control and random assigment

Two essential ingredients in a social-psychological experiment are

laboratory research

Asking students to come to a laboratory at 3 p.m. in order to participate in a study on university students' usage of cellular phones is an example of what type of research?

greatest longevity

According to the text, the postal code areas of Scotland that have the least overcrowding and the least amount of unemployment also have the

informed consent

___________ is an ethical principle requiring that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate.

everyday language

Your decision to call someone a "terrorist" rather than a "freedom fighter" depends on your view of the cause. This is an example of how values can influence not only social psychology, but

social representations

Socially shared beliefs are widely held ideas and values, which include our assumptions and cultural ideologies. This is a definition of

longevity

Carroll, Smith, and Bennett (1994) found that the height of graveyard markers in a Glasgow cemetery was positively correlated with

theories explain facts

The difference between facts and theories is that

random

A sample in which every person in the population being studied has an equal chance of inclusion is called a _____ sample.

humans' tendency to prejudge reality based on expectations.

Hastorf and Cantril (1954) found that Princeton students identified twice as many Dartmouth violations as Dartmouth students did when each watched the game. This emphasizes

random assignment

The process of assigning participants to the conditions of an experiment such that all persons have the same chance of being in a given condition is referred to as

Hypotheses allow us to test a theory

Which one of the following is one of the purposes of a hypothesis according to the text?

used only if it is essential and justified.

Deception in an experiment is

normal or overweight woman's picture.

In Snyder and Haugen's research on obesity and social status (1994; 1995), male students were shown a picture of a normal or obese woman before having a conversation with a female student. In this study, the independent variable was the

Informed consent

_____ is an ethical principle requiring that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate.

generalizing from the laboratory to life.

Regarding social-psychological research, Myers warns that we must be cautious about

old cars are replaced by newer and better models.

The analogy used in the text to describe what happens when old theories are discarded employs a discussion of how

obese

A study of _____ women, by Gortmaker and colleagues (1993), found that these women were less likely to be married and less likely to earn high salaries than women in a comparison group.

significantly more

In Boyatzis' (1995) study of the influence television has on aggressive behavior in children, the results indicated that the viewers of Power Rangers committed ____ aggressive acts per two-minute interval compared to those children who did not watch this program.

humans' tendency to prejudge reality based on expectations

Hastorf and Cantril (1954) found that Princeton students identified twice as many Dartmouth violations as Dartmouth students did when each watched the game. This emphasizes

experimental

In order to determine whether or not changing one variable (such as education) will produce changes in another (such as income), one needs to conduct _______ research

deception

_____ occurs in research when participants are misinformed or misled about the method and purposes of the study.

sampling bias

In 1936, the news magazine Literary Digest obtained the opinions of over two million Americans regarding the presidential election. The results suggested that Landon would win in a landslide over Franklin D. Roosevelt. A few weeks later, FDR won in a landslide. The results of the survey were not valid, and this was due to

All of these ...X causes Y, Y causes X, A third variable causes or influences both X and Y

Variable X is correlated with Variable Y. Which of the following could explain this correlation?

both experimental and labratory research

You are interested in finding out the effect that crowding has on people's moods. You conduct a study in a psychology research lab using two types of participants - participants who have to wait in a crowded waiting room before completing a measure of their mood, and participants who wait in an empty room before completing the same measure. Which type of research did you conduct?

summarizes and explains facts

A theory

social neuroscientists.

Those who consider under-the-skin (i.e., biological) and between the skins (i.e., social) influences on topics such as love and hate are referred to as

other people, our attitudes and personality, and our biology

Myers points out that our social behavior is shaped by

Intuition is both powerful and perilous.

According to Myers' discussion of intuition, which statement is TRUE?

Our standards regarding promptness, beauty, and equality vary with our culture.

Which of the following is an example of how our attitudes and behaviors are shaped by external social forces?

independent

The experimental factor that a researcher manipulates in a study is called the ______ variable

demand characteristics

The cues in an experiment that tell the participants what behavior is expected are called

deception

_____ occurs in research when participants are misinformed or misled about the method and purposes of the study.

are more likely to be about the same in every way

As a result of random assignment, the people in both groups of an experiment

humans' tendency to prejudge reality based on expectations.

Hastorf and Cantril (1954) found that Princeton students identified twice as many Dartmouth violations as Dartmouth students did when each watched the game. This emphasizes

Social psychology research shows us what to value.

What is NOT true about how values affect social psychology?

think about, influence, and relate to one another.

Social psychology is defined as the scientific study of how people

dependent variable

An experimenter exposed participants to different room temperatures to determine their effects on aggression. Aggression was the

fact that it occurs in real-world settings.

Myers argues that the major strength of correlational research is the

learned helplessness

You have tried to study for an exam with flashcards, with a friend, and with your notes - all to no avail. You begin to feel that you should give up, as whatever you do does not seem to help your exam scores. According to Myers, the best term for this symptom is

they move on and try to do better

Learning about immune neglect, which statement applies to how most people respond to failing an exam?

praise and learning from one's achievments

According to Myers' discussion on self-esteem and success, research suggests that self-esteem comes from

collectivism

In the U.S., those living in Hawaii and the deep South exhibit more _______ than those living in the Mountain West states.

false consensus effect

Barbara was really shocked when her candidate was not elected. She had assumed that everyone felt as she did and supported her candidate's ideas. This is an example of the

collectivistic; individualistic

A person from a(n) _____ culture is more likely to say, "Went to the movies," and a person from a(n) _____ culture is more likely to say, "I went to the movies."

individualists; collectivists

Political conservatives tend to be economic _______ and moral _______.

raise the standards by which we evaluate our own attainments

An example of how social comparisons can actually breed misery, rather than satisfaction, is when

We really don't know ourselves as well as we think we do

Which statement is most accurate in relationship to our self-awareness?

experience great difficulty

When it comes to predicting the intensity and duration of our future emotions, research indicates that most people

intensity of their future emotions.

You just broke up with someone you had been dating for a few months. You are surprised at how upset you are over the breakup, given that the relationship was not that serious. This is an example of how people have difficulty predicting the

happier

Compared to those with low self-esteem, people with a sense of self-worth are

The people who know you can probably predict your behaviors better than you.

Which statement about predicting your own behaviors or relationships is TRUE?

majority; less

According to Myers, when our social group is the _______, we think _______ about it.

implicit

Practice that forms new habits, albeit slowly, tends to change what type of attitudes?

overestimate

When you give a presentation in class and feel extremely nervous you will tend to _____ what others think about your nervousness.

spotlight

Assuming that everyone thinks you are a jerk because you forgot to show up at a dinner party with a gift for the host can be considered an example of the _____ effect.

commit less vandalism

Research has found that when prisoners are given some control over their environments, such as being able to move chairs and operate the lights, they tend to

the other person said about us

According to the results of the Kahan and Johnson (1992) study mentioned in the text, two days after a conversation with someone our recall is best for what

With an interdependent self, one has a sense of belonging.

.
Since our self-concept seems to adjust to our situation, which is most correct?

high self-esteem

Baumeister (2003) reported that people who engaged in sexual activity at an early age, teen gang leaders, terrorists, and men in prison for committing violent crimes tend to possess

negatively

Researchers reported that both anxiety and depression are ______ correlated with self-efficacy

social comparison

You prefer that professors post exam scores (by identification number), rather than returning them individually. It makes you feel better to see how you did in comparison to other students. This is an example of what social psychology phenomenon?

skill;chance

According to the self-serving bias, we tend to attribute our successes to _______ and our losses to _______.

the self

According to the author of the text, no topic in psychology today is more researched than

evryone does it

Which saying reflects the false consensus effect?

the tendency to see our talents and moral behaviors as relatively unusual.

The false uniqueness effect is

internal

You attend a self-help discussion group, where the leader is encouraging people to think of themselves as the writers, directors, and actors of their own lives. The group leader is hoping people will adopt a(n) _______ locus of control.

both the intensity and the duration

According to Wilson and Gilbert (2003), people have the greatest difficulty predicting _______ of their emotions.

specific;truthful

The best way to improve your performance in class is to be _____ in the praise and _____ about your ability and performance.

more likely

People with low self-esteem are _____ to have clinical problems, including anxiety, loneliness, and eating disorders.

external

Your best friend earned a grade of F on her latest physics exam, and believes it was because the professor wrote a very difficult exam. She therefore has a(n) _______ locus of control.

individualistic

In what type of culture would a threat to our personal identity (such as having someone tell us we are dumb or weird) cause us to be more upset than a threat to our collective identity (such as having someone ridicule students)?

individual achievement

Most people with high self-esteem value individual achievement and relationships with others. Narcissists value

the self-serving bias

The tendency to perceive oneself favorably is referred to as

better about their speach and their appearance

In Savitsky and Gilovich's study, public speakers who were informed about the illusion-of-transparency phenomenon felt

spotlight effect

A study by Gilovich, Medvec, and Savitsky (2000) had undergraduate students enter a room wearing Barry Manilow t-shirts. This study explored which concept mentioned in the text?

more aggressive

People with high self-esteem and narcissism are _____.

self-efficacy

A sense that one is competent and effective refers to one's

locus of control

The extent to which we perceive outcomes as a result of our own efforts or as a result of chance refers to

individualism

Giving priority to one's own goals over group goals, and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications is a definition of

conservative

You overhear a neighbor say that she believes that gay marriage should be illegal and that she favors tax cuts for the wealthy. Knowing what you do about individualism and collectivism, you can conclude that your neighbor is likely to be a political

positive

Researchers reported a _______ correlation between persistence and self-efficacy.

more

In Kitayama's (1996) study of cultural differences in the praise that friends give to one another, the results indicated that Americans are ¬¬_______ likely to compliment others when compared with the Japanese.

It makes us feel less vulnerable to risks such as AIDS.

Which of the following is NOT one of the ways that the self-serving bias is adaptive?

self-reference effect

Being a musician in a band, you seem to pay attention when other people are discussing music and easily remember their musical preferences. This tendency is referred to as the

possible self

After seeing a billboard for the lottery, you imagine a life of the rich and famous for yourself. This future self-schema you imagine is an example of a

the false consensus effect

Assuming that other people are as prejudiced against a certain group as we are can easily be explained by

individualistic

Self-esteem is more personal and less relational in what type of culture?

negatively

Researchers reported that both anxiety and depression are ______ correlated with self-efficacy.

transparency

The illusion that our concealed emotions leak out and can be easily read by others is referred to as the illusion of

collectivists; individualists

Political liberals tend to be economic ¬¬¬¬_______ and moral _______.

daily experiences

Our self-concept is fed by our roles, our social identity, our comparisons, and by

is relevant to our self-concepts

The self-reference effect refers to the tendency to quickly process and remember well the information that

internal

People who successfully stop smoking and do well in school tend to have a(n) _______ locus of control.

success and distance ourselves from failure

Saying "I earned an A on my psychology test" versus "My instructor gave me a C on my psychology test" exemplifies how we associate ourselves with

self-interest colors social judgment.

The fact that we usually attribute more responsibility to our partners than to ourselves when problems arise in a relationship is an example of how

the looking-glass self

The habit of using how we imagine another person perceiving us, as a mirror for perceiving ourselves, is referred to as

individual acheivement

Most people with high self-esteem value individual achievement and relationships with others. Narcissists

unrealistic optimism

Many people don't quit smoking despite all the negative health information available. This is an example of

effort and fewer self-doubts will help us succeed

The truth concerning self-efficacy encourages us not to resign ourselves to bad situations. If we persist despite initial failures

fear

According to Woodzicka and LaFrance (2001), women reported that they would feel angry if asked sexually harassing questions during a job interview. When actually asked such questions, women more often experienced

increase

If your initial efforts to lose weight, stop smoking, or improve your grades are successful, it is likely that your self-efficacy will

clinical depression

According to Schwartz (2000; 2004), individualistic modern cultures have "an excess of freedom," which is positively correlated with

self-handicapping

John is nervous about his tennis match, but he still stays out late instead of getting a good night's sleep the night before the match. This could be an example of

strong

You notice that your niece is unusually persistent when working on her homework. She rarely claims that she is unable to complete an assignment and is academically successful. You would be correct in speculating that she likely has _______ feelings of self-efficacy.

see ourselves as better than the average person

When we compare ourselves with others, most of us tend to

I'm sure I'll get a great job when I graduate

Which of the following is an example of unrealistic optimism?

explicit

After learning about another culture or religion, we begin to realize how prejudiced we have been toward this group and realize that we should change our attitude to a more positive one. This is an _______ attitude.

the tendency to see our talents and moral behaviors as relatively unusual.

The false uniqueness effect is

much less prejudice than others

Most people perceive themselves as

The people who know you can probably predict your behaviors better than you

Which statement about predicting your own behaviors or relationships is TRUE?

self-esteem

Our sense of self-worth is also called our

possble-selfs

Images of what we dream of or dread becoming in the future are called

collectivism

In the U.S., those living in Hawaii and the deep South exhibit more _______ than those living in the Mountain West states.

majority; less

According to Myers, when our social group is the _______, we think _______ about it.

increases

According to the text, self-esteem typically _____ in Japanese exchange students after they spend several months at a Canadian university. This suggests that self-concepts become more individualized after visiting Western countries.

increase with

Self-efficacy is similar to self-esteem in that both _______ our accomplishments

collectivism

Giving priority to the goals of one's group, such as one's family or workplace, and defining one's identity accordingly is called

conservative

You overhear a neighbor say that she believes that gay marriage should be illegal and that she favors tax cuts for the wealthy. Knowing what you do about individualism and collectivism, you can conclude that your neighbor is likely to be a political

learned helplessness

You have tried to study for an exam with flashcards, with a friend, and with your notes - all to no avail. You begin to feel that you should give up, as whatever you do does not seem to help your exam scores. According to Myers, the best term for this symptom is

overestimating

According to Myers, we are prone to "impact bias," or _______ the impact of emotion-causing events (such as finding out the results after being tested for HIV).

effective, superior, and proud

Kitayama and Markus (2000) found that, for American students, happiness comes from

self-serving bias

The tendency to perceive oneself favorably is referred to as

large, selective university

High school students who finished near the top of their class are more likely to experience a threat to their academic self-esteem if they attend a

to thine own self be true

Which of the following maxims best represents the concept of individualism?

counterfactual thinking

Which of the following maxims best represents the concept of individualism?

dispositional

Attributing behavior to a person's traits is an example of what type of attribution?

dispositional

A fellow student is consistently late for class. You assume this is because he is lazy and unorganized. What type of attribution are you making for his behavior?

belief perserverance

Sometimes the basis for one's belief is discredited but an explanation of why the belief might be true survives. Social psychologists refer to this as

forget about situational influences

Inferring that Cinderella is truly meek as she cowers in her oppressive home is an example of how we often

consistency

Misha is struggling with her computer. She is asked if she usually encounters difficulty when using her computer. The answer to this question provides information

behave toward that person in a way that draws out their flirtatious behavior

If you are told that someone you have never met is attracted to you, you will likely

situational

Attributing behavior to a person's environment is an example of what type of attribution

controlled processing

When trying to recall the definition of the fundamental attribution error during an exam, you think back to what the professor was wearing when he was talking about the fundamental attribution error in class. What type of thinking is this?

self-awareness

A self-conscious state in which attention focuses on oneself is called

availability

The cognitive rule that judges the likelihood of things in terms of their availability in memory is called the _____ heuristic.

heuristic

Which of the following is a thinking strategy that enables quick, efficient judgments?

distinctiveness

Misha is struggling with her computer. She is asked if she has difficulty using other computers on campus. The answer to this question provides information about

controlled processing

"Explicit" thinking that is deliberate, reflective, and conscious is called

self-conscious

Maureen does not seem to take responsibility for her actions (e.g., always creating excuses for coming home past curfew and acting like a victim of teachers when it comes to bad grades). In order for her to take responsibility for her behavior, she needs to become more

Your beliefs influence how you see now information

You have strong feelings about abortion. Which statement is true?

regression toward the average

Although you once earned a 100 on your physics exam, you have subsequently been unable to earn a perfect score again. Your experience may be understood in terms of

belief perserverence

Sometimes the basis for one's belief is discredited but an explanation of why the belief might be true survives. Social psychologists refer to this as

priming

To retrieve a memory of where your date told you she wanted to go for dinner tomorrow, you need to activate one of the strands that leads to this memory, such as thinking about what types of food she does and does not like. This process is known as

an illusory correlation.

The perception of a relationship where none actually exists, or the perception of a stronger relationship than actually exists, is called

representativeness heuristic

Once during a hospital stay, you observed a man and a woman (both in health professional attire) talking. You assumed that the man was a physician and that the woman was a nurse. Later, you found out the opposite was true. What type of heuristic did you use during your initial reaction to the two individuals?

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