Energy & Metabolism

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Bio 103 Chapter 6

Each significant properties of a cell requires

Energy

Energy is defined as

the ability to do work

Free energy, is the difference b/t the internal energy or enthalpy and ___ or disorder

entropy

The process of influencing the chemical bonds in a way that lowers the ___ needed to speed up a chemical reaction, catalysis.

activation

Enzymes work most effectively at

optimum

Certain key molecules can regulate biochemical pathways by controlling the rates of enzymatic reactions by biding at ___ sites

allosteric

A series of sequential chemical reactions which are maintained in the cell are called:

biochemical pathways

A chemical reaction which requires energy is called an ___ reactions.

endergonic

A molecule that closely resembles the shape of a substrate for an enzyme might serve as a

competitive

Oxidation and reduction reactions are chemical processes that result in a gain or loss in

electrons

reactions that occur spontaneously and release free energy are called

exergonic reactions

A chemical reactioin in which the products contain less energy than the ___ will tend to proceed spontaneously.

reactants

Protein catalysts that speed up the various metabolic biological reactions in an organism are called

enzymes

Enzymes have specific ___ with which they interact

substrates

The active site is shaped so that only a certain

substrate molecule can fit into it

The inorganic non-protein components that participate in enzyme catalysis are known as

Go factors

The cheif energy currency of all cells is a molecule called

ATP

The chemistry of living systems representng all chemical reactions is called

metabolism

A calorie is the commonly used unit of chemical energy, it is also the unit of

heat

The term oxidation is derived from the name of the element oxygen. This reasonable, because oxygen

attracts electrons very strongly

When an atom or molecule gains one or more electrons, it is said to be

polarized

Life's ultimate source of energy is derived from

the sun

As energy is being reconverted through the many forms, it is continuosly lost as

heat

Reactions that do not proceed spontaneously because they require energy from an outside source called

endergonic

Molecules that act as catalysts in biological systems are

enzymes

Enzymes catalyze chemical reactions by lowering the

activation energy

In an enzyme catalyzed reaction the reactant is called the

substrate

The sites where molecules othe than substrates bind in an enzyme to alter its activity are called __ sites

allosteric

One of the most important coenzymes that accepts electrons/hydrogens is

NAD+

ATP gives up energy when it is converted to

ADP & phosphate

The regualation of simple biochemical pathways often involves the end product binding to the allosteric site of the first enzyme in the sequence, called

competitive inhibition

The First Law of Thermodynamics simply states

Energy can be neither created or destroyed

The Second Law of Thermoydynamics simply states

"high entropy"

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