Musical terms

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Practice for music final

Accelerando

becoming faster

Adagio

Slow tempo

Allegretto

light, cheerful, fast tempo; bit slower than allegro

Allegro

Cheerful, lively, fast tempo

Andante

Moderate, graceful temp, between Allegretto& Adagio

Arrangements

adaptation of composition

Articulation

degree to which notes are separated or connected

Bass

the lowest voice, instrument, or part

Chord

three or more notes sounded simultaneously

Crescendo

gradually growing louder

D.C. al fine

indicates to return to beginning of piece &play to the "Fine" sign

Decrescendo

Gradually growing softer

Diatonic

notes indigenous to a key in major or minor scale

Diminuendo

Gradually growing softer

Duple Meter

A time signature with two beats in measure

Dynamics

The degrees of loudness and softness

Pianissimo

really soft

Piano

soft

Mezzopiano

medium soft

Mezzoforte

medium loud

Forte

loud

Fortissimo

really loud

Embellishment

Ornaments added to music

Expression marks

symbols or explanations for musical interpretation

Fermata

a hold or pause

Form

the shape and order of music

Genre

a distinct type of composition

Harmony

the study of the structure, progression& relationships of chords

Improvisation

Spontaneous composition

Instrumentation

the art of composing, orchestrating, or arranging for an instrumental ensemble

Interpretation

an expression of one's own character & style in a work

Interval

distance between two notes

Key Signature

sharps or flats written on staff at beginning of piece to indicate key

Legato

smooth

Lyrics

words to a song

Major

"Greater, happy" sounding in quality

Measure

space between two bar lines

Melody

an organized sequence of single notes

Meter

a framework for rhythm determined by the number of beats, time value of those beats, and accents thereof

Minor

"Lesser, sad" sounding in quality

Notation

written music indicating pitch & rhythm

Octave

interval between the first and eigth degrees of the diatonic scale

Ostinato

repeated musical figure, rhythmic pattern, or motive most often occurring in the bass line

Pitch

highness or lowness of a note, as determined by frequency

Posture

way in which a student stands or sits while playing or singing

Range

the notes, form the lowest to highest, that a voice or instrument may be capable of producing

Repeat

the restatement of a passage

Rhythm

Division of time. pattern of long and short note values in music

Ritardando

"delaying" becoming gradually slower

Slur

curved line connecting two or more notes, indicating that they are to be played legato

Staccato

"detached" short, separated notes indicated by a dot above or below a note

Markings

indications of pace of music and metronome markings

Tempo

"Time" pace of a piece of music

Tie

curved line connecting two notes of the same pitch, indicating they are to be played as one note

Tonal

pertaining to tone, key center or mode

Tone

A note, the basis of music

Treble

highest voice, instrument or part

Variation

the modification of theme, figure, or passage by means of melodic, rhythmic, contrapuntal, or harmonic changes

Vibrato

"Shaking" repeated fluctuation of pitch

Ad libitum

at the performer's discretion

Affettuoso

tenderly

Agitato

Agitated

Al fine

to the end, usually w/ da capo or del segno

Alla breve

double the tempo (with half note as the beat)

Allargando

getting slower

Andantino

Modification of andante, whether faster or slower is not always clear

Assai

very; sometimes, rather

A tempo

Resume earlier tempo

Attacca

continue without pause

Brio, con

with spirit or vigor

Calando

getting weaker and slower

Cantabile

singing, songlike

Col legno

with the wood of the bow (of the bow)

Da capo

repeat from the beginning (D.C.)

Del segno

repeat from the sign (D.S.)

Diminuendo

gradually getting softer

Dolce

sweetly

Espressivo

expressively

Festivo

festive

Forte

loud

Fortissimo

very loud

Fuoco, con

with fire

Giocoso

playful

Glissando

sliding

Grandezza, con

with dignity, grandeur

Grave

solemn, serious

Gusto, con

with style, taste

Largamente

broadly

Largo

slow, dignigied tempo

Legato

smooth, connected

Leggiero

light

Lento

slow

Lo stesso tempo

same speed

Maestoso

Majestic

Marcando, marcato

marked

Mezza voce

half voice; in instrumental music, half volume

Mezzo

half

Moderato

moderate tempo

Molto

very

Obbligato

indispensable part, opposite of ad libitum

Poco

little

Quasi

as if, nearly

Rallentando

gradually slowing

Ritenuto

immediately slower

Rubato

flexible melody against an inflexible accompaniment

Scherzando

playfully

Segue

continue without a break

Semplice

simple

Senza

without

Sforzando

sudden accent

Soli

melody w/ entire section

Sostenuto

sustained; smoothly

Sotto voce

in an undertone

Spiritoso

spirited

Staccato

disconnected; opposite of legato

Staff

5 parallel lines used in musical notation

Tacet

silent

Tenuto

held, legato

Tremolo

rapid reiteration of a single pitch

Trill

rapid alternation of notes

Troppo, non

not too much

Tutti

all (players)

Vivace

quick, vivacious

Volti subito

turn (the page) quickly

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