The major psychosocial accomplishment of early childhood is learning _____________
This ability is called _______________
when and how to express emotions; emotional regulation
Between 3 and 6 yrs of age according to Erikson, children are in the stage of ______________ ________ ________. In the process, they develop a positive _______-________ and feelings of ________ in their accomplishments
initiative versus guilt; self-concept; pride
Children also develop a longer _________span that enables concentration, which is made possible by ____________ maturity. And they develop naive predictions, called _____ ______ , which helps them try new things.
attention; neurological; protective optimism
Erikson also believed that during this stage, children begin to feel ___________ when they realize their own mistakes. Many people believe that _______ is a more mature emotion than ______ because the former emotion is ____________.
guilt; guilt; shame; internalized
For the most part, children enjoy learning, playing and practicing for their own joy; that is, they are _______ _____. The importance of this type of motiviation is seen when children invent and converse with __________ __________.
intrinsically motivated; imaginary friends
Motivation that comes from the outside is called ______- ________. Providing reinforcement for something a person already enjoys doing _____________ (stregthens/may diminish) intrinsic motiviation.
extrinsic motivation; may diminish
Emotional regulation ______________ (is/is not) valued in all cultures. Cultures ___________ (differ/generally do not differ) in the emotions considered most in need of control.
An illness or disorder that involves the mind is called ___________. Children who have ____________ problems and lash out at other people or things are said to be "_______________' (overcontrolled/undercontrolled). Children who ______________- problems tend to be inhibited, fearful, and withdrawn.
Girls generally are better than boys at regulating their _____(internalizing/externalizing) emotions, but they are less successful with ______________ones. For both sexes, though, extreme reactions predict future _____________.
Neurological advances in the brain's _____ ______ are partly responsible for the greater capacity for selfcontrol that occurs at about age _____________.
prefrontal cortex; 4 or 5
Neurological vulnerability and parents who maltreat them combine to lead to ________________.
Neurological and hormonal effects may make boys more likely to ___________ and girls more likely to ___________, difference that it is probably ____________.
According to Erikson, 3 yr old Samantha is incapable of feeling guilt because
guilt depends on a sense of self, which is not sufficiently established in young children
Erikson did not equate gender constancy with the emergency of guilt
3 yr old Ali, who is fearful and withdrawn in displaying signs of __________ problems which suggest that he is emotionally _____________.
Usually with maturity extreme fears and shyness diminish.
Summarizing her report on neurological aspects of emotional regulation. Alycia notes that young children who have externalizing problems tend to lack neurological maturity in the brain's ______________ _________.
Emotional regulation requires thinking before acting, which is the province of the prefrontal cortex. Lack of maturity results in externalizing problems.
Young children play best with a _______that is, people of about the same_____ and ______- __________.
peer: age; social status
As children grow older, play becomes more ____ and more affected by their ______________ __________ and culture.
social; physical setting
Another cultural shift that has changed the nature of children's play is the increasing prevalence of _______ which has resulted in their displaying advanced _________- _________.
television; sexual awareness
The devleopmentalist who distinquished five kinds of play is _______________. These include _______________play, in which a child plays alone; ____________play, in which a child watches other children play; _________________ play, in which children play together without interacting; _____play, in which children interact, but their play is not yet mutual and reciprocal; and ____play, in which children play together and take turns.
Mildred Parten; solitary;
onlooker; parallel; associative; cooperative
Active play correlates with ______acceptance and a healthy _________. The type of active play that looks rough is called __________ - _________-_______________ play.
A distinctive feature of this form of play, which ___________ (occurs only in some cultures/is universal), is the positive facial expression that characterizes the "__________-_____________". This type of play advances and ___________and ________ _________.
peer;self-concept;rough-and-tumble; is universal; play face; planning ;self control'
In _____________play, children act out various roles and plots in stories of their own creation. This type of play helps them to explore and rehearse _______ ____ roles and to develop _____________in a non threatening context for example.
sociodramatic social roles; self-concept
guilt is associated with the resolution of the Electra complex, which occurs later in life.
Did Erikson think that a 3 yr old is incapable of feeling guilt - Yes
Onlooker play: watching other children play
sitting on a bench in the playground watching children on the see-saw
playing with similar toys in similar ways, but not together. Two girls playing with their own dolls indifferent areas of a dollhouse or two boys building blocks.
interactive play, but not yet mutual and reciprocal. A group of children drawing with crayons.
acting out various roles and themes in stories they create. Pretend-racing cars or playing house
Although Juvaria and Brittany are sharing drawing materials and watching each other, their play is not yet mutual or reciprocal. Mildred Parten would probably classify this type of play as ___________. play
24. A significant influence on early psychosocial growth is the style of _____ that characterizes a child's family life
The early research on parenting styles, which was conducted by _____________, found that parents varied in four dimensions; their expressions of _____, their strategies for ____________, their ____________, and their expectations for __________.
Diana Baumrind; warmth; discipline; communication; maturity
26) Parents who adopt the style demand unquestioning obdience from their children. In this style of parenting, nurturance tends to be _____ (low/high) maturity demand are ________(low/high), and parent-child communication tends to be ________ (low/high).
authoritarian; low ; high ; low
Parents who adopt the __________ style set limits and enforce rules but also listen to their children. Such parents make ___ (high/low) maturity demands, communicate ______(well/poorly) and _____ (are/are not ) nurturant.
Parents who are indifferent toward their children have adopted the _____________/_______________
30) Although this classification is generally regarded as ______ (very useful, too simplistic), follow -up studies indicate that children raised by _______parents are likely to be obedient but unhappy and those raised by ____parents are likely to lack self-control. Those raised by_______ parents are more likely to be articulate, successful, happy with themselves, and generous with others.
too simplistic; authoritarian; permissive;authoritative
Culture _______________ (exterts/does not exert) a strong influence on disciplinary techniques. However, discipline methods and family rules are less important than parental _________ ________ and ______.
exerts; warmth, support and concern
__________factors may be more important than ethnic ones. Also, culture and family patterns change with __________and ____________.
Socioeconomic; time; place
Six major american organizations concerned with the well-being of children urge parents to reduce __________ ___________
Most young children in the US spend more than _____ (how many?) hours each day using some sort of media.
The new media are not always harmful. Some children may learn basic ______from educational programs, especially if their parents watch with them and ____________ the lessons.
According to the ___________ hypothesis, whatever time children devote to elecronic media reduces time spent in _______________ and _________activities.
displacement ; social; education
Yolanda and Tom are strict and aloof parents. Their children are most likely to be
obedient, but unhappy
Authoritarian parents have behavior standards and require obedience without question. So their children to be obedient but unhappy.
which is NOT a feature of parenting used by Baumrind to differentiate authoritarian, permissive, and authoritive parent. 1) maturity demands for he the child's conduct 2) efforts to control the child's actions 3) nurturance 4) adherence to sterotypical gender rolls.
4adherence to sterotypical gender roles
Baumrind's categories have nothing to do with gender roles
What are the features of parenting used by Baumrind to differentiate authoritarian, permissive, and authoritive parents?
maturity demands for the child's conduct
efforts to control the chilid's action
The ability to truly understand the emotions of another, called _____ often leads to sharing, helping, and other examples of ______ behaviors. In contrast, dislike for others, or ____________, may lead to actions that are destructive or deliberately hurtful. such actions are called __________ ______________.
empathy; prosocial behaviors; antipathy; antisocial behavior
By age ____ or ____, most children can be deliberately prosocial or antisocial. This occurs as a result of ________maturation, ____________ regulation, ________ ______- ______, and interactions with ___________.
4 or 5; brain; emotional; theory of mind; caregivers
Developmentalists distinquish four types of aggression: _I____________, used to obtain or retain an object or privilege; R_____________, used in angry retaliation against an intentional or accidental act committed by a peer; _R_____________, which takes the form of insults or social rejection; and _B______________, used in an unprovoked attack on peer.
instumental; reactive; relational; bullying
(text and table 10.3) The form of aggression that often increases from age 2 to 6 is __________ ___________. Of greater concern are ______________ _________., because it can indicate a lack of ____ _______and _______ ________, which is most worrisome overall.
instumental aggression; reactive aggression; emotional regulation; bullying aggression.
(table 10.4) state four specific recommendations for the use of discipline that are derived from developmental research finding:
1)Remember theory of mind
2) Remember egocentrism
3) Remember fast-mapping.
4) Remember that young children are not logical
Physical punishment _____ (seems to increase/does not seem to increase) the possibiliity of long-term aggression and __________ (temporarily increases/has no effect on) obedience.
seems to increase; temporarily increases
Another method of discipline, in which children's guilt and gratitude are used to control their behavior, is ____________ ___________. This method of discipline has been linked to children's decreased _______________, _______________, and ________acceptance.
psychological control; achievement;creativitiy;social
The disciplinary technique most often used in North America is the __________-___________in which a misbehaving child is asked to sit quietly without toys or playmates. Experts suggest a period of __________________ (how many?) minute(s) for each year of the child's age.
Another common practice involves the parents explaining to the child why the behavior was wrong, called ___________________.
50) Seeking to discipline her 3 yr old son for snatching a playmate's toy, Cassandra gently says, "How would you feel if Juwan grabbed your car?" Developmentalists would probably say that Cassandra's approach.
will be effective in increasing prosocial behavior because it promotes empathy.
When 4 yr old Seema grabs for Vincenzo's Beanie Baby, Vincenzo slaps her hand away, displaying an example of ________aggression.
instumental. This kind of aggression involves trying to get or keep something someone else has as Seema is doing here.
52) 5 yr old curtis, who is above average in height and weight, often picks on children who are smaller than he is. Curtis' behavior is an example of ___________________aggression
This kind of aggression involves repeated, unprovoked physical or verbal attack on other people.
4 yr old Eboni shows signs of distrust toward strangers. Eboni's behavior is an example of ____________
54) Social scientists distinquish between biological, or ___________, differences between males and females, and cultural, or ________, differences in the _____and behavior of males and females that are prescribed by the culture.
55) By age ______, children can consistently apply gender labels. By age ____, children are convienced that certain toys are appropriate for one gender but not the other.
56) Freud called the period from age 3 to 6 the ___________ ____________. According to his view, boys in this stage develop sexual feeings about their ________ and become jelous of their ___________. Freud called this phenomenon the ____________ _________. Boys also develop, in self-defense, a powerful conscience called the ________________.
phallic stage; mothers; fathers; oeidpus complex; superego
During the phallic stage, little girls may experience the ______________ ____________, in which they want to get rid of their mother and become intimate with their father.
58) According to psychoanalytic theory, children of both sexes resolve their guilt and fear through ________ with their same-sex parent.
59) According to behaviorism, young children develop a sense of gender by being _______ for behaviors deemed appropriate for their sex and _______ for behaviors deemed inappropriate.
Behaviorists also maintain that children learn gender-appropriate behavior not only through direct reinforcement but also through ______________.
61) Cognitive theorists focus on children's _________of male-female differences. This understanding is called a _________ _____________.
understanding; gender schema
62) Sexual attraction is crucial for humankind's most basic urge, reproduction, according to _________ theory.
63) The behaviors appropriate for each gender are determined by culture, not by biology, according to the ______ theory. This theory points out that some of the distinctions are tied to general patterns of _____ _________.
sociocultural; social organization
64) Therefore, _________ theory would encourage male-female differences, and ______________ theory would conclude that sex differences are __________if they interfere with other values.
evolutionary; sociocultural; changeable
65) The idea that a person should combine the best of both sexes is referred to as _________________.
66) Bonita eventually copes with the fear and anger she feels over her hatred of her mother and love of her father by
identifying with her mother
According to psychoanalytic theory, children identify with the same-sex parents because of their guilt in hating that parent.
A little girl who says she wants her mother to go on vacation so that she can marry her father is voicing a fantasy consistent with the _____________described by Freud.
Resolution of this complex results in the identification noted in 66.
Leonardo believes that almost all sexual patterns are learned rather than inborn. He is clearly a strong adherent of ____________
Behaviorism believe that children learn through rewards and punishments
69) In explaining the origins of gender distinctions, Dr. Christie notes that every culture teaches its children its values and attitudes regarding preferred behavior for men and women. Dr. Christie is evidental a proponent of _____________
Sociaoculutural theoriest contend that children learn from their culture, not biology.
1) Young children have a clear (but not necessarily accurate) concept of self. Typically, they believe that they
are great at almost everything
According to Freud, the third stage of psychosexual development, during which the penis is the focus of psychological concern and pleasure, is the
What theoriest believe that the oral and anal stages are associated with infant development. What is the theory?
Traditional is a variation of the basic styles. Indulgent and neglecting are abusive styles and clearly harmful, unlike the styles initially identified by Baumrind
The three basic patterns of parenting described by Diana Baumrind are
1) authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative
5) Authoritative parents are receptive and loviing, but they also normally
set limits and enforce rules with diplomatic relationship with children.
6) Emotional regulation is most accurately defined as
the ability to control when and how emotions are expressed.
(Table 10.3) Between 2 and 6 of age, the form of aggression that is most likely to increase is increase is
8 )During early childhood, a child's self-concept is defined largely by his or her
expanding range of skills and competencies
Behaviorists emphasize the importance of _____ and _______in the development of the preschool child.
praise and blame
10) Children apply gender labels and have definite ideas about how boys and girls behave as early as age ____
2 yrs old
11) Developmentalists agree that punishment should be
rare and limited to behaviors the child understands and can control.
13) 3 yr old Jake, who lashes out at the family pet in anger, is displaying signs of ____problems, which suggests that he is emotionally _______.
14) (A view from Science) Compared with North American mothers, Japanese mothers are more likely to do all of the following:
use reasoning to control their children's social behavior.
use expressions of disappointment to control their children's social behavior
express empathy for their children.
15) (Table 10.3) When her friend hurts her feelings, 6 yr old Maya shouts that she is a "mean old stinker!" Maya's behavior is an example of _____
1) According to Diana Baumrind, only authoritarian parents make maturity demands on their children. T/F
All parents make some maturity demands on their children; maturity demands are high in both the authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles.
2) Children of authoritative parents tend to be successful, happy with them-selves,and generous with others.T/F
5) Rough and tumble play is more common in Western cultures than in Eastern cultures. T/F
rough-and-tumble play is universal
9) Identification was defined by Freud as a means of defending one's self-concept by taking on the attitudes and behaviors of another person. T/F
2) Psychosocial accomplishement of early childhood is learning when and how to express emotions. T/F
2a) Developing a sense of initiative and positive self-esteem are aspects of emotional regulation. T/F
3) Which area of the brain plays an important role in the child's greater capacity for self-control that appears at age 4 or 5?
5) Which of the following best summarizes the current view of developmentalists regarding gender differences?
Developmentalists disagree on the proportion of gender differences that are biological in origin.
6) According to Freud, a young boy's jealousy of his father's relationship with his mother, and the guilt feelings that result,are part of the
7) The style of parenting in which the parents make few demands on children,the discipline is lax, and the parents are nurturant and accepting is
8) Cooperating with a playmate is to _____ ___________as insulting a playmate is to _______ __________.
prosocial behavior; antisocial behavior
This describes an internalizing problem
tendency to internalize emotions or inhibit their expression.
10) Which of the following theories advocates the development of gender identification as a means of avoiding guilt over feelings for the opposite-sex parent?
includes social learning, emphasizes that chldren learn about gender by rewards and punishments and by observing others.
11)a parent who wishes to use a time-out to discipline her son for behaving aggressively on the playground would
be advised to
have the child sit quitely indoors for a few minutes
11a) Time-outs involve removing a child from a situation in which misbehavior has occurred. Moreover, these threats of future punishment would likely be less effective because of the delay between the behavior and the consequence. T/F
Although develpmentalists stress the need to prevent misdeeds instead of punishing them and warn that time-outs
may have unintended consequences, they nevertheless can be an effective form of discipline. T/F
in which style of parenting is the parents' word law and misbehavior strictly punished?
Erikson noted that young children eagerly begin many new activities but are vulnerable to criticism and feelings of failure; they experience the crisis of
initiative versus mistrust
According to Erikson, these are the crises of adolescence and infancy, respectively. T/F
(refer to previous question)
action performed for the benefit of another person without the expectation of reward.
parenting style associated with high maturity demands and high parent-child communication
parenting style associated with high maturity demands and low parent-child communication
a forceful behavior that is intended to get or keep something that another person has
a behavior, such as cooperating or sharing, performed to benefit another person without the expectation of a reward
in psychoanalytic theory, the judgemental part of personality that internalizes the moral standards set by parents and society.
Behavior that takes the form of insults or social rejection is called _________aggression.
Style of parenting in which parents make few demands on their chldren, yet are nurturant and accepting and communicate well with their children
Means of defending one's self-concept by taking on the behaviors and attitudes of someone else
Ability to manage or modify one's feelings, particularly feelings of fear, frustration, and anger.
In Freud's phallic stage of psychosexual development, a boy's sexual attraction toward the mother and resentment of the father
Style of childrearing in which the parents show little affection or nurturance for their children, parents have high behavioral standards, and parent-child communication is low.
in Freud's phallic stage of psychosexual development, a girls' sexual attraction toward the father and resentment of the mother
Style of parenting in which the parents set limits and enforce rules but do so more democratically than do authoritarian parents
Aggressive behavior that is an angry retaliation for some intentional or incidental act by another person.
Initiative versus guilt
According to Erikson, the crisis of early childhood is initiative versus gult. in this crisis, young chldren eagerly take on new skills and activities and feel guilty when they do not succeed at them.
is the internal goals or drives to accomplish something for the joy of doing it.
Young children who have externalizing problems have trouble regulating emotions and uncontrollably lash out at other people or things.
In sociodramatic play,
children act out roles and themes in stories of their own creation, allowing them to rehearse social roles, practice regulating their emotions, test their ability to convince others of their ideas, and develop a sef-concept in non-treatening context.
is Baumrind's term for a style of child rearing in which the parents show little affecton or nurturance for their chldren maturity demands are high, and parent-chld communication is low.
Permissive parenting is
Baumrind's term for a style of child rearing in which the parents make few demands on their children, yet are nurturant and accepting an communicate well with their children.
Authoritative parenting is
Baumrind's term for a sytle of child rearing in which the parents set limits and enforce rules but are willing to listen to the child's ideas and are flexible.
___________parents act as authorities do non a subject - by discussing and explaining why certain family rules are in place.
is Baumrind's term for an approach to child rearing in which the parents are indiffferent toward their children.
is feelings and actions that are deliberately hurtful and destructive to another person
is hurtful behavior that is intended to get or keep as possession or privlege that another person has.
is impulsive retaliation for some intentional or accidental act, verbal or physical, by another person
is behavior that is instrumental in allowing a child to retain a favorite toy.
involves insults and other nonphysical acts aimed at harming the social connection between the victim and other people.
is a form of discipline that involves threatening to withdraw love and support from a child
is a form of discipline in which a child is required to stop all activity and sit quitely apart from other people for a few minutes
Psychoanalytic theory: the third stage of psychosexual development, in which the penis becomes the focus of concern and pleasure.
According to Freud, boys in the phallic stage of psychosexual developent develop a collection of feelings, known as
Oedipus complex, that center on sexual attraction to the mother and resentment of the father.
In psychoanaltic theory, the judgmental part of personality that internalizes the moral standards of the parents
Girls in Freud's phallic stage may develop a collection of feelings, known as ____________ that center on sexual attraction to the father and resentment of the mother..
In Freud's theory, ____________is a means of defending one's self-concept by taking on the behaviors and attitudes of another person.