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i spelled stuff wrong. my apologies.

Major theaters of warfare- highlights:
Eastern/Central Front

Russian forces suffered defeats by Germany, Russia experienced two revolutions and finally withdrew in 1918 accepting the harsh terms of the treaty of Brest-Litousk

Major theaters of warfare- highlights:
Southern Fron

1915 Battle of Gallipoh: Britan fails to take Constantinople and Dardenelles from Ottoman Turks, incites Arabs to revolt against Ottoman Turks

Central Powers 1917

Overrun most of Balkans except Greece, unsuccessful in Italy, could use waterways to their advantage

Western Front

By 1914 German armies overran Belgium and northern France until they were stoppped at the Battle of Marne

1916 Germans

attempted to stop the Allies but were defeated at Verdun and Somme

United States enters the war

Unifies with French troops under Fr. Marshal Foch

November 11, 1918

Germands under command of General von Hindenberg and Ludendorff sue for peace

US declares war on Germany because

a) unrestricted submarine warfare
b) propaganda: alligned with British, stories slated against Central Powers, anti-German convinced US to support allies
c) German hostility in the Americas: Zimmerman Note
d)loans made to the Allies, pressure from banks
e) make the world safe for democracy

War on the home front

Most people viewed the war enthusiastically, but came home disillusioned

Social impacts at home

Women took on more jobs, gender attitudes changed, many countries gave women the right to vote, lessened gap between social classes

Impacts economically at home

Unions cooperated with gov't, not to ask for wage increases, planned economy, everything geared towards war

Political tensions: France

George Clemenceau, people had little civil liberties

Auxiliary Law in Germany

all males 17-60 had to work a job critical to the war effort, Fatherland party becomes more popular in Germany

Austrian politics

France Joseph dies, transition, Austrians saw opportunity to declare independence

Great Britain politics

Easter uprising= Irish fighting independence

Weapons used in WWI

machine gun, rifle, chlorine gas, mustard gas, blimps, tanks, planes, torpedoes, basked wire, flame thrower, grenades

Russian Revolution: Political causes

Russian land owned by companies, peasants had no land. Nicolas II doesn't share power with the Duma, alienates the Duma

Nicolas II weak leader

Nicolas II befriends the Duma to prevent loss of power, but eventually dismisses the Duma, then Nicolas II goes to fight in the army, upsetting most of the Russian population

Economic causes of Russian rev.

Peasants want land from the gov't, soldiers had no weapons, no training. Workers wanted better working conditions and higher wages

Social causes of Russian rev

Nationalities, 40% of Russians were not ethnic Russians, wanted an end to russification (conversion to Russian culture)

Progressive Bloc: Sept 1995

attempt to restructure the gov't, responsible to the Duman, not the tsar.

Tsarina Alexandra put in power

fan of Rasputin (RA RA RASPUTIN) he would influence her power, gave advice, love affair

Provisional Gov't: March-Nov 1917

Lavr Kornilov, commander in chief, Alexander Kerensky

Russia under Alexander Kerensky

Refused to give land to the peasants, didn't pull out of the war, shared power with Petrograd Soviet of Workers and Soldiers. Restores civil liberties, frees prisonners, Army Order No. 1

Why did provisional gov't under Kerensky fail?

-too moderate, people wanted radical change
-had to share power with Petrograd Soviets, who wanted further, more radical changes
-Loses support of the army under General Kornilov
-the return of Vladimir Lenin
-end of dynasty

the return of Lenin: his beliefs regarding socialism;

-Only violent revolution could destroy capitalism
-Revolution not based on history, based on leadership
-Revolution possible in not only industrialized society, but agrarian

Lenin's plan

-Small elite group to set everything up, after planning is done, group disbands
-Goal is for everyone to be equal

Lenin's slogans

"all power to the soviets" "all land to the peasants" "end the war now" "bread, land, and peace"

Easy for Bolsheviks to come to power

support of so many types of people, again more power, saying what people wanted to hear, Trostsky and Lenin and strong leadership, very convincing

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