Ch. 12 AP Euro (The Crisis of the Middle Ages)

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Flagellants

These extremists turned to whipping and scourging themselves to pay for the sins of society as a penance to God. Believed that the Black Plague was God's punishment for humanity's wickedness.

Great Famine

This occurred in the years 1315-1322 and was also referred to as a recurrence of the Biblical "7 lean years". During this event 1/4 were likely to be poor. Most notably it hit Ypres at the same time a typhoid epidemic struck and 10% of the population died in 6 months.

Black Death

This diseases scientific name is "Pasteurella pestis" and first appeared in Europe around 1348. A legend holds that it first broke out under the Tartar army of Khan Djani-Beg. It was aided by the sequence of famines that occurred in the previous years. Also known as "atra mors '" in French.

Giovanni Boccaccio

Au, Petrach's student and friend who pioneered in Humanism. He's famous for his "Decameron" for being an avid collector of manuscripts, assembling an encyclopedia of Greek and Roman Mythology. Also documented spread of Black Plague .

The Book of Revelations

The last book of the New Testament. This was probably the most popular book during the late Middle Ages because it dealt with visions of the end of the world, disease, famine and death.

Philip the Fair

This French ruler who had 3 sons that condemned speculators. A member of the House of Capet, he was also the 4th. He led the Royal family out of Aragon after the Aragonese crusades. He is also notable in that he arrested Jews and kicked them out of France , debased coinage and forced Pope Boniface to issue clerisics laicos. He also forced Pope Clement V to settle in Avignon in a period of the Babylonian Captivity.

Babylonian Captivity

This 70 year period began when Popes were French and resided in Avignon, France. Starting when French King Philp the Fair forced Pope Clement V to Avignon. This angered Italians and led to the Great Schism. Also refers to the deportation of the Jews to Babylonia by Nebuchadnezzar in 586 BC

Peace of Caltabellotta

This treaty closed that ended by the conflict between the House of Anjou and the House of Barcelona.

Salic Law

A sixth-century law code of the Franks, and a part of the fundamental law of France. They used this invented tradition to argue that Edward III of England should be barred from the French throne. (This notion became part of French legal tradition until the end of the monarchy in 1789.) Start of Hundred Years War.

Edward II

This English King was sometimes referred to as "of Carnarvon," his reign was marked by incompetence, political squabbling and military defeats. His defeat at Bannockburn freed all of Scotland from English control. Rumored to be gay and hence a common rendition of his death involves having a hot poker shoved up his bottom. He was overthrown by his wife Isabella and Roger Mortimer.

Selman Waksman

American microbiologist who discovered the cure to the Black Plague in streptomycin.

buba

The boil that resulted from catching the Bubonic Plague, gave the plague its name and caused agonizing pain.

Statue of Laborers

Guild masters supported this 1351 law which was an attempt by the English Parliament to freeze the wages of workers at pre-1347(before Black Plague) levels. Was not successful.

The Dance of Death

Was a painting of a dancing skeleton leading a live man away to his death. This painting depicts the deep pessimism of medieval society after the Black Death. "Danse Macabre"

Mortimer

English nobleman who with the help of his secret over Queen Isabella deposed Edward II and was executed by Edward III (1287-1330).

Queen Isabella

Daughter of Philip the Fair of France and Queen of England at the start of the "Hundred Years War". The exclusion of her to the French throne following the death of Charles IV by the long obsolete 6th century Salic Law led to it being passed to Philip VI and the origins of the 100 years war.

Edward III

English king, grandson of French King Phillip the Fair of France and son of Queen Isabella of England, Started the Hundred Years War when he made a claim to the French throne. He did this when French king Charles IV, last of Philip sons, died without a male heir. Paid homage to Philip for Aquitaine. Also killed Roger Mortimer.

The Decameron

Written by the Florentine Giovanni Boccaccio and containing a 100 allegorical stories. Describes ambitious merchants, lecherous friars, and cuckolded husbands, and portrays a frankly acquisitive, sensual, and worldly society.

Flanders

A fief of the French crown during the "Hundred Years War" it also provided the bulk of wool to England. It's nobility and burghs frequently supported the English King Edward III's claim to the French thrown.

Jean Froissart

French writer who wrote the "Chronicles of France and England" or "Lores Chroniques" during the Hundred Years War to eulogize the passing of aristocratic, idealistic, chivalric Europe and the rise of mass, mob-based, popular culture.

Battle of Crecy

1346 battle in northern France. This victory for England and Edward the Black Prince occurred when English Longbow men cut down French knights and crossbow men which allowed English horsemen to charge and butcher the remaining French solider. Probably the first use of artillery in the west.

Battle of Poitiers

Technically the 2nd battle with this name, This is Edward the Black Prince's 2nd significant victory over the French in the Hundred Years War. It involved the same battle strategy as the Battle of Crecy and involved the capture of French King John II for ransom.

Battle of Agincourt

1415 Battle in which the English and Solider King Henry V defeated the French using their longbows, despite their smaller numbers. The French knights dismounted and charged across a muddy field to the elevated position held by the English. Resulted in the the Treaty of Troyes five years later.

Henry V

King of England during the Hundred Years' War he forced French King Charles VI to sign away his kingdom and took his daughter, Katherine, in marriage. Also won at the Battle of Agincourt which solidifies his nick name as the "Soilder King".

Joan of Arc

Born in the village Domremy, she began to hear voices as a teenager(Saint's Michael, Catherine, and Margaret), told the Dauphin Charles VII that he had to be crowned at Riems. Her belief that the French troops would win as long as they stopped swearing and visiting was fundamental to her victory at the Battle of Orleans. Was captured by the Burgundians and sold to the English before being burned at the stake for witchcraft.

Dauphin

Name for an uncrowned king. During the Hundred Years War this applies most to Charles VII of France .

Siege of Orleans

One of Joan of Arc's major victories, she won this battle by charging after retreating, It was when the English controlled much of France north of the Loire Valley and attempted to expand their holdings by attacking Orleans. Allowed Charles VII to be crowned at Riems 10 days later.

Representative Assembly

A legislature composed of individuals who represent the population. Grew as a result of the Hundred Year's War.

King Charles VII

After the Hundred Year's War, He was set to the throne. He began to take administrative power away from the Estates-General. He secured more power for the monarchy by increasing control over the church in France.

Pope Gregory XI

Moved the Papacy back to Rome and ended the Babylonian Captivity in 1377. He died shortly after which led to the choosing of Bartolomeo Prignano (Who became known as Pope Urban VI)

Pope Urban VI

When elected, there was a public decree that he was canonically and freely elected, despite pressure from Roman mobs. He wanted to abolish simony and pluralism, and absenteeism. However he might have been insane and threatened to strike the Archbisop of Amiens. At Anagni the College of Cardinals excommunicated him and elected Clement VII as antipope.

pluralism

Holding several church offices at the same time. Pope Urban VI wanted to outlaw it.

Antipope

A rival pope, elected in opposion to another, who is later judged not to be a part of the elected succession of popes. In general, it refers to the popes elected at Avignon in opposition to those at Rome during the Great Schism, and to a series of popes elected at Pisa and Basel.

The Great Schism

A split in the Catholic Church that lasted from 1378 to 1418, There were rival popes in Rome and in Avignon, while France's enemy England and its allies supported the pope in Rome; Resulted when neither Clement VII nor Urban VI stepped down from the papacy Ended after Pope Martin V took over after the failed Council of Pisa and the semi successful Council of Constance.

Conciliar Movement

A movement arising during the Great Schism. Its followers believed that church authority rested in the council's representing the people, not the authority of the pope.

Defensor Pacis

Written by Marsiglio of Padua, a former rector of the University of Paris, this book made the first clear assertion of the supremecy of secular powers over the Church. He declared that the faithful were the true authority of the Church. Influenced Conciliar Movement and resulted in Marsiglio's excommunication.

John Wycliff

English professor who questioned the a temporal powers of the pope. "Scriptures Alone" doctrine was his standard. His works resulted in the first English translation of the Bible and also influenced a 1381 Peasant Rebellion (Wyatt's Rebellion). Followers were called Lollards.

Lollards

Term technically means "mumblers of prayers and psalms" But they were also followers of John Wycliffe, they were suppressed in England under Henry V. By this time though, the less fundamental ideas of Wycliffe had spread to the University of Prague and led to reform there.

Council of Pisa

A 1408 council of bishops representing both popes (Clement VII and Urban VI) met and elected a new pope, deposing both of the popes they represented. Neither former pope, however, would accept this new rival. Thus, the problem was not solved.

Council of Constance

Brought on by pressure from German Emperor Sigismund, this Council lasted from 1414-18. It had three objectives : to end the schism, reform the church, and to wipe out heresy. It most notably condemned Czech reformer Jan Hus and led to him being burned at the stake. Also disposed of other popes and elected Martin V as pope.

Pope Martin V

Roman cardinal Colonna; elected at the Council of Constance to stop the Great Schism. Chose not to reform the church instead focusing on exclusive.

Merchet

Fine paid on a marriage during the Middle Ages in England. A peasant would pay a this to his lord upon the marriage of a woman. The justification for this was that when a woman married, her lord was losing a worker. Usually the bride's father would pay, as buying the right to give his daughter away.

banns

The public announcement in a Christian parish church that a marriage is going to take place between two specified persons. Issued on three successive sundays by parish priests.

William Wallace

Led a revolt against English King Edward I. Fought English at Battle of Sterling Bridge, was defeated at Battle of Falkirk. English tried him for treason, was executed barbarically. More admired than Bruce in Scotland, he was a man of the people.

Fur Collar Crimes

Crimes committed by nobles as a way of income especially after the Hundred Years War. These crimes were popular because of the lavish and aristocratic lifestyles nobles demanded due to their chivalric code. Frequently done by manipulating judicial process.

Peasant Revolts

Revolts that took place in Flanders in the 1320's; England in 1381; and in Germany in 1525. They Revolted from resentment towards the nobility.

Battle of Spurs

Battle that Henry VIII fought against the French forces in Northern France. Results in the capture of the French city of Turnai. Lead to a peasant revolt.

Jacquerie

Popular revolt by peasants that took place in northern France in 1358, during the Hundred Years' War. The revolt centered in the Oise valley north of Paris. This rebellion gets its namesake from how nobles derided peasants (Good Fellow). Took place after King John of France was held ransom.

Wyatt's Rebellion

Revolt of 1554, aim of rebellion is to prevent marriage between Mary I or England and King Philip of Spain. Leader and namesake claims to be rebelling against Queen's evil councilors. Results in his execution, 90 of his followers and Lady Jane Grey.

John Ball

English Lollard priest who took a prominent part in the Peasant's Revolt in 1381. Gained considerable fame as a preacher by expounding the doctrines of John Wycliffe, but especially by his insistence on the principle of social equality. These utterances brought him into conflict with the archbishop of Canterbury and on three occasions, he was sentenced to prison. Famous for saying "When Adam delved and Eve span; who was then the gentleman?"

King Richard II

Met with the rebels of the English Peasants' Revolt and granted their requests for the abolition of feudal services and their right to rent land at an agreed price; Promises were quickly withdrawn, but the poll tax was abolished. Was a "Boy King".

Ciompi Revolts

1378 violent struggle against the Florentine government by the popolo. Resulted in brief

Ciompi

Translates as "wool carders." A class of laborers who rose up in revolt in Florence in 1378.

Statute of Kilkenny

Series of thirty-five acts issued by Edward III of England (1366) forbidding marriage between English and Irish, requiring the use of the English language, and denying the Irish access to ecclesiastical offices; a prime example of English racist attitudes.

Dalimil Chronicle

Survey of Bohemian history which was the first chronicle written in the Czech language. Pervaded with Czech hostility toward Germans.

Grand Testament

Villons masterpiece includes legacy to a prostitute, exposes and celebrates human condition, humor, depth, rebellion.

Divine Comedy

Written by Dante Alighhieri. Provides the framework for a symbolic pilgrimage to the City of God. Contains 100 cantos with 3 equal parts describing Hell, Purgatory, and Paradise. Criticizes the established church on some levels.

Canterbury Tales

This is the series of poems written by Geoffrey Chaucer. It talks about a group of people on pilgrimage to the shrine of St Thomas Beckett. It one of the most important and earliest works in Modern English.

The City of Ladies

A chronicle of the accomplishments of the great women of history. It was a defense of women's reputation and virtue, stating that man and woman were equal. It also strived to teach women of the qualities needed to counteract the growth of misogyny., Written by Christine de Pisan.

Treaty of Troyes

1420 Treaty which Henry V forced Charles VI to sign during Hundred Years War. It said that all land conquered by the English belonged to England. It disinherited the legitimate heir to the French throne and proclaimed Henry V successor to Charles VI.

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