Lymphatic System

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Compare and contrast circulatory system and the lymphatic system?

Lymph vessels travel one-way, back to the heart, venous route; has similar structure to veins including tunics and valves (?); structural difference includes the lymph vessel's need to diffuse bigger molecules; lymph transport slower and has lower pressure and speed than veins

What is the main function of the lymphatic system?

To bring back lost fluid and plasma proteins to the circulatory system to ensure that there is sufficient blood volume

What dictates what get forced outside the capillaries?

Blood pressure

Name a few things that the lymph vessels carry.

Fat molecules, pathogens, lymphocytes

Where do the fluids get forced out of the circulatory system?

Capillaries

What does interstitial mean?

Outside the cell, tissues, or organs

Lacteal

Lymphatics located in the villi of small intestines that absorb fat molecules that are too big to be absorbed by blood vessels of the intestines

Where are fat molecule taken once absorbed by lacteals?

They bypass the liver and are carried directly to the heart

How many liters of fluid are not returned to the circulatory system?

3 liters remain in the interstitial tissues

Where is lymph introduced back into the circulatory system?

Right and left subclavian/internal jugulars, then right atrium

Lymph

Clear, colorless fluid similar to blood plasma; contains macrophages, bacteria, viruses, cancer cells

What is it called when cancer cells are present in the lymph?

Metastasizing

Main components of the lymph system?

Lymph, vessels, tissues, organs

Where are the lymphatic vessels located?

Woven between the tissue cells and blood capillaries in loose connective tissue

Edema

Lymph not returned to blood vessels as normal; fluid back-up

How is draining reestablished?

Lymph vessels will regrow

What increases the rate at which lymph returns to the heart?

Exercise

Elephantiasis

A worm transmitted by a mosquito clogs a lymph vessel; usually affects lower extremities

Name the major lymphoid cells

T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, reticular cells, natural killer cells

T-lymphocytes

mature in the thymus, manage immune response, and some directly attack and destroy pathogens

B-lymphocytes

mature in the bone marrow, can differentiate into plasma cells, which produce antibodies

What are antibodies?

They bind to antigens in order to immobilize them

Dendritic cells

APCs, found in areas open to the external environment, has long extensions to catch pathogens, engulf via receptor mediated endocytosis

Reticular fibers

produces fiber to make the framework to support other cell types lymphoid organs; specifically, found in spleen and lymph node

Natural killer cell

large lymphocyte, directly attacks and destroys pathogens nonspecifically, involved in innate immunity, also targets transplanted cells, host cells infected with viruses or cancerous cells

Diffuse lymphoid tissue

loose aggregation of lymphocytes

Nodule

tight aggregation of lymphocytes with a definite structure

Describe lymph vessel drainage.

Capillaries pick up the lost fluid, drain into lymph vessels, vessels drain into 6 lymph ducts, and the ducts drain into 2 collecting vessels

Lymphatic trunks

Formed by the union of the largest lymph vessels

Name the 6 trunks.

Paired lumbar, bronchomediastinal, subclavian, jugular, intestinal trunk, intercostal

Right lymphatic duct

Drains the right arm, right side of head and thorax and dumps into the right subclavian

Thoracic duct

Collects from the rest of the body including lower extremities and dumps into the left subclavian vein

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