at end of Austria's seven week war with Prussia, which demonstrated that Bismark didn't want Austria in united Germany, Austria had to deal with internal nationalities. 1867 Hapsburg Empire formed Dual monarchy of two independent and equal states under one ruler - emperor of Austria and King of Hungary. Ethnic groups within the Hapsburg empire were agitating for total independence.
British Union of Fascists
formed in 1932, opposed to free trade liberalism and communism. Favoured national solutions by relying on imperial development. Squads beat up their political opponents, and attacked Jews. Struck a chord with poorest working-class people. Was outlawed in 1936.
Communist International. Encouraged national communist parties in preparation for coming world revolution. Determined policy for all member parties. Stalin purged it so the Comintern severed ties with foreign social democratic parties.
German armies fighting back against Napoleon III-led France in the Franco-Prussian war (July-Sept 1870) take France but Paris refuses to give up. Bismarck's troops lay siege to Paris. siege ended with elections and France voted to end war. However Parisians revolt against rest of France giving into the Prussians and siege continues (March - May 1871) Government troops entered the city and crushed the commune. Demonstrated the power of patriotism to inspire sacrifice.
Created in 1871 in the aftermath of the Franco-Prussian War; crushed by the national army after a brief struggle; symbol of revolution for radical politicians, including Marxists.
This group consisted of some seven individuals, which acted as the inner circle of the Soviet Central Committee.
Seven man executive of the Central Committee of the Communist Party in the Soviet Union that determined policy and held reigns of power; included Trotsky, Stalin, Bukharin.
Coalition of Left and Centre in France, intent on economic reforms, promising wage increases paid vacations etc, reduced the work week to 40 hours, which dropped productivity and interfered with Frances recover in depression decade.
Socialist governments established in both France and Spain in the 1930s; the French version failed to solve the Depression and was voted out of office; the creation of socialist republic in Spain initiated a civil war.
Social Democratic Party
German Party in late 1870s that were committed to a Marxist critique of capitalism and cooperation with other socialist parties internationally. Bismark saw them as threat to stability of Germany and outlawed the party, although candidates stood for election. Socialist strength steadily grew.
German fascist Nazi state under Hitler that developed in the 1930s.
Third World Nations
countries that had a role in cold war strategies of Russia after 1953, Khrushchev offered "friendship treaties" (military advice, trade credits and support) in Asia, Africa and Latin America to be freed from colonial rule. Military rule and fragmentation often resulted.
Third World Nations
The former colonies of European and Asian imperialism; sought to separate themselves from European economic control after independence; operated in the United Nations as a non-aligned bloc.
liberal and democratic government of Germany after WW1, which had a progressive constitution including franchise for women and other civil liberties.
German government founded at the end of the First World War; used by German general staff as scapegoat for German defeat and harsh peace terms; overthrown in 1933.
created1992 when the 12 EC members agreed on a common currency, central banking system and common defense system and common social policies regulating immigration and labour practices. New currency began in 2002. Now increased to 27 members with eastern European nations joining.
a non communist labour union in Poland lead by an electrician Lech Walesa, that staged a series of coordinated strikes in factories that shut down the entire economy and forced the Government to agrees to a series of reforms, which included increased civil liberties. Large number of Polish became members. Eventually became a political party and defeated the Communist party.