history of jazz

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Define: Timbre

refers to quality of sound, or tone color

What are some of the brass instruments found in Jazz?

Trumpet, cornet, trombone

Define: Mute

physical devices inserted into the bell of the instrument to distort the sounds coming out

what are some of the types of mute a trumpet player will use

rare bucket mute, cup mute, harmon mute, straight mute

What are some of the reed instruments found in jazz?

Clarinet and Saxophone

What are the different sizes of saxophone?

alto, tenor, soprano, and baritone

how does the soprano saxophone differ in appearance from other saxophones?

it is "straight" like the clarinet instead of a gooseneck and a curved bell

what are the main functions of the rhythm section?

to provide harmony, bass and percussion

What instruments are found in the "default" rhythm section?

piano, string bass, and drums

what types of percussion instruments may be found in a drum set (trap set)

ride cymbal, large tom-tom, bass drum, small tom-tom, snare drum, crash cymbal, high-hat cymbal

what other types of percussion instruments may be used to augment the percussion section of a jazz band?

gongs, whistles, and tambourines

Define: beat

the pulse of a piece of music

Define: tempo

speed

define: meter

division into measures or bars

define: measure/bar

is a segment of time defined by a given number of beats of a given duration

What is an irregular meter? (also known as "additive rhythm" or "complex meter")

signatures that do not fit into the usual duple or triple categories most often these can be recognized by the upper number being larger than 9 or 12

what is polyrhythm?

the simultaneous use of different rhythms in separate parts of the musical texture

what is syncopation

every time a strong accent contradicts the basic meter, syncopation occurs

define: interval

is the measurement of distance between any two notes

define: chord

is defined as three or more notes sounding simultaneously

define: octave

two notes, one having twice or half the frequency of vibration of the other

define: scale

a collection of pitches within the octave

Define: chromatic scale

a musical scale with 12 equally spaced pitches, each a semitone apart

define: tonic

first note in a scale that provides the keynote of a piece of music

define: half-step

semitone: the musical interval between adjacent keys on a keyboard

define: whole-step

the distance from one note to another with a single key between

define: variable intonation/blue notes/bent notes:

a note sung or played at a slightly lower pitch than that of the major scale of expressive purpose

What is harmony?

the simultaneous sounding of pitches

Define: chord:

a group of 3 or more notes sounded together

define: triad:

basic chord, combining 3 pitches

what is a harmonic progression (chord progression)?

a series of chords placed in a strict rhythmic sequence

what is meant by the term "chorus"

a repeating cycle of chord progressions within a set number of measures. defined by rhythmically (# of measures) and Harmonically (repeating chord progression)

what defines a twelve-bar blues form?

three lines at four measures each add up to twelve measures.
chorus length of 12 bars (measures) and employs the primary triads I, IV, and V as the skeleton for the repeating chord progression within a chorus. Extremely flexible

What is a turnaround and what is likely to happen at that point?

is a transitional passage between choruses or between the distinct parts of a chorus. At this point a turnaround lead back to the I chord and the next chorus

What is the "head" of a piece?

a composed section fitting a securely in the 12 bar format

what defines a 32-bar pop song form? What is the "bridge"?

AABA- A-statement(8 bars); A-repetition(8 bars); B-(bridge) contrast (8 bars) A-return(8 bars); Bridge-new 8-bar phrase

what is meant by the term "rhythm changes"?

a harmonic progression based on the George Gershwin tune "I Got Rhythm"

What is a big band "arrangement"?

composed scores for the orchestra, with individual parts for each musician

ballad:

a long, early type of folk song that narrated a bit of local history

work song:

a type of folk song used during work to regulate physical activity or to engage the workers attention

field holler:

an unaccompanied, rhythmically loose vocal line sung by a field worker

spiritual:

african american religious song

what is distinctive about the typical arrangement of the words in each stanza of a blues song?

they are three-line stanzas with the 2nd line being a repetition of the first

What type of performer is typical in the earlier style of blues known as the "country blues"

solitary male musicians

what performers are typical for Vaudeville ("Classic") Blues?

females singers accompanied by a small band.

Who wrote "St. Louis Blues" (1914)

W.C. Handy later known as "Father of the Blues"

identify: Mamie Smith, "Crazy Blues" (1920)

Perry Bradford, an African American songwriter and tune plugger, convinced Okeh Records to try a black artist, Mamie Smith, she recorded "Crazy Blues", recording companies realized that African Americans constituted a new market

Performers took "banjo rhythms" and moved them to what instrument to create ragtime?

Piano

what was the cakewalk

a comic dance supposedly dating from the time of slavery, it was developed from a "Prize Walk" dance

what form did ragtime borrow when it became a written music

march form

who was the best known of the ragtime composers?

Scott Joplin

identify: Maple Leaf Rag 1899

Composed by Scott Joplin it was a piece that wedded African American polyrhythm to the harmonies and structure of a concert march

identify: Treemonisha

a semi-autobiographical opera in which an impoverished Texas town is saved from superstition by an enlightened, educated young woman

From what city did the earliest style of jazz emerge?

New Orleans

What was Congo Square?

a place where slaves and free blacks were permitted to congregate there to dance and play music on Sunday afternoons

Who were the Creoles of Color?

mixed-race as the result of black and french or black and spanish alliances evolved into a significant social group, accorded many legal and social liberties, Found in New Orleans

Who is generally acknowledged as the first important musician in jazz? where was he born? what was is instrument

Charles "Buddy" Bolden born in New Orleans. He played the cornet

What are the front-line instruments of New Orleans jazz?

trumpet (or cornet), trombone, clarinet

with what instrument do we associate "tailgate style"? What is it and where does it get its name?

Trombone. tailgate style is glissandos, which is when sliding from one note to the next. The name came from when a bands toured the streets in a horse-drawn wagon to publicize a gig, the trombone often performed with its slide stuck over the tailgate

the Polyphonic texture of New Orleans style is typified as its most distinctive feature. What is another name for the simultaneous multiple melodies from the three front-line instruments?

collective improvisation, which is the instruments in the front line improvised simultaneously in a dense, polyphonic texture

what was Freddie Keppard's instrument? What was his historical importance? (mention both what he did and what he didn't do)

He played cornet. Played in Vaudeville theaters in Los Angeles, Chicago, New York. He was not the first to record a jazz record

What recording is generally regarded as the first jazz record? When was it recorded? What were the titles of the two sides? What group recorded it? Who was the cornet player who led the group

Livery Stable Blues/ Dixie Jass Band One-Step, was the title of the 2 sides. Recorded Feb. 26, 1917 by Original Dixieland Jazz Band. Nick LaRoca was the cornet player

Who was the leader of the first black jazz band to make a recording? in what year was it made?

Kid Ory, 1922

Who is generally considered the first jazz composer? Where was he born? What was his instrument?

Jelly Roll Morton, he said he was born 1885 but baptismal records indicate he was born in 1890. Studied guitar, trombone before focusing on piano at age 20

With what group did Jelly Roll Morton record in 1923, producing the first significant integrated recording?

New Orleans Rhythm Kings

What was the Name of Morton's recording group of 1926

Red Hot Peppers

What was the name of Joseph "King" Oliver's Chicago based band? What was his instrument? who played second cornet in the band? who was the pianist?

King Oliver's Creole Jazz Band, King Oliver played the cornet. Second cornet in the band was Louis Armstrong. Lil Hardin was the pianist

Identify: "Dippermouth Blues"

Group: King Oliver's Creole Jazz Band, Recorded: Richmond,IN April 6,1923. Composed by Joseph Oliver for Louis Armstrong

What were Sidney Bechet's two instruments? What was his association with Europe?

Sidney Bechet played clarinet and soprano saxophone. Sidney went to Europe with Will Marion Cook orchestra, Ernest Ansermet wrote a lengthly review of Sidney on the clarinet. Eventually Sidney like Europe so much he decided to stay. He cleared the way for an invasion of black entertainers.

What happened in 1925 that changed the nature of the recording industry?

the development of electrical recording

What was the 18th Amendment to the Constitution and when was it passed into law? What was its effect on nightlife?

it prohibited the manufacture, transporting and sale of alcohol. 1920 it was passed. it caused a lot of speakeasies (illicit saloons) to be created also it sprung up a vast web of organized crime. They hired musicians, singers, comedians, dancers, jazz was perfectly suited for the industry.

Who was Paul Whiteman and what was the significance of his new york aeolian hall concert of 1924?

Paul Whiteman was the first pop-music superstar of the 20th century at Aeolian Hall Whiteman was promoted as the "King of Jazz" also he was honored as the originator of "symphonic jazz"

What is "symphonic jazz?"

a form of jazz popular in the 1920s that attempted to elevate the music through symphonic arrangements

Who was the principal arranger in the early years of the Fletcher Henderson band?

Don Redman

What influential cornet/trumpet player joined the Fletcher Henderson orchestra in 1924?

Louis Armstrong

What was Tin Pan Alley?

A songwriting factory, originally, it was the nickname for buildings on 28th street between broadway and sixth ave. many music publishers and their offices.

Describe the pianist's left hand figure which typifies stride piano.

the motion of the pianist's left hand, striding back and forth from low in the bass clef to the octave below middle C

Who was James P. Johnson? Identify: "Carolina Shout," "Charleston"

Known as "father of stride Piano," 1918 Carolina Shout as a song in a series of piano rolls, which became an anthem. "Charleston" became the most widely recognized melody of the 1920s.

Who was the "growl trumpet" player in Duke Ellington's early bands?

Bubber Miley

Identify: "East St. Louis Toodle-o."

One of Ellington's first major works it was his version of ragtime dance, it was a different approach to the blues.

What Harlem nightclub served to launch the career of Duke Ellington in 1927?

The Cotton Club

In what city was Louis Armstrong born?

New Orleans

What happened on New Year's Day 1913, and what was the consequence?

louis was apprehended for shooting blanks in the air and was sent to the New Orleans Colored Waif's Home for Boys for 18 months.

What were some of Armstrong's professional musical experiences before moving to chicago?

he spent3 years on riverboats under the leadership of Fae Marable. He replaced Oliver in Kid Ory's Band

What band did Armstrong join in Chicago? Who was the pianist in the band who became his second wife?

King Oliver's Creole Jazz Band, Lil Hardin

What band did Armstrong join in New York?

Henderson Dance Band

What was the significance of the Hot Five and Hot Seven recordings of Louis Armstrong?

it existed only to record. 65 titles in all, not including similar sessions in which Armstrong appeared as a sideman. We witness jazz's rapid evolution from a group concept dominated by polyphony to a showcase for soloist and individual expression

What pianist known for his "trumpet-style" approach to the keyboard, joined the Hot Five in 1928?

Earl Hines

What were the instruments of Bix Beiderbecke and Frank Trumbauer? What recording is generally considered their masterpiece?

Bix Beiderbecke, piano and cornet. Frank Trumbauer, C-melody saxophone. "Singin' the Blues" is generally considered their masterpiece

Who was the first great soloist on the tenor saxophone?

Coleman Hawkins

What Fats Waller song was sung by Louis Armstrong in the Broadway musical revue entitled "Hot Chocolates"?

Ain't Misbehavin'

What was the name of the small group that Armstrong led for the rest of his life beginning in the late 1940's?

Louis Armstrong and His All Stars

Define:walking bass

a bass line featuring 4 equal beats per bar, usually used as a rhythmic foundation in Jazz.

Define: sharp

raising any key in pitch by a half-step produces the "sharp" form of that note

Define: flat

Lowering any key in pitch by a half step produces a "flat" form of that note

Define: major scale

uses every letter name in order. half steps between the 3rd & 4th scale degrees and between the 7th & 8th scale degrees.

Define: C-major scale

its the only scale that uses just white keys. also it does not include any sharp or flat notes

define: root

bottom note of the chord

Major Triads

I, IV, V

Primary Triads

any key are that is the I, IV, and V chords
I-tonic
IV-subdominant
V-dominant

define: Voicing

refers to the particular spacing chosen for a chord by a jazz musician or arranger

Define: harmonic substitutions

replacing chords with ones they happen to like

Three things we listen for

repetition- AA
contrast - AB
variation - A'

define: introduction

a few measures played at the beginning of a piece which simply act as a tempo

define: head

a composed section...[which] announces the form at the beginning of a tune, as well as the melody, and return at the end, framing the performance

define: 32 bar pop song chorus

another form used for jazz improvisations is the thirty-two bar AABA popular song
A-Statement (8mm)
A-Repetition (8mm)
B (bridge) contrast (8mm)
A return (8mm)
does not derive from a basic skeleton of primary triads. composers can choose any harmonies they like

Define: flexible pitch

pitch bending

Define: call and response

a statement by one musician (or group of musicians), the "call" is immediately answered by a counter statement, the "response"

define: Pentatonic Scale

a scale of five notes

define: time-line pattern

a complex rhythm used as a foundation layer (a continuous, unchanging pattern whose very repetition provides a framework for the whole)

Define: Ride pattern

a steady pulsation played on the ride cymbal that forms one of the foundations for modern jazz

define: cyclic form

repetition with improvisation

define: country blues

an early style of blues...featuring itinerant male singers accompanying themselves on guitar. its a solo performance but with the addition of an instrumental accompanied. AAB pattern

define: Classic blues

more formalized, especially since it was now accompanied by a small ensemble which required some form of organization

First recorded Blues

1920, Mamie Smith, "Crazy Blues"

Bessie Smith

The Empress of the Blues

define: brass band

originally a military institution that in peace time became a local "people'"

Jazz instrumentalists

Jazz instrumentalists created new timbres for their instruments by imitating the pitch bending vocal effect of the blues singers.

Country blues

songs usually folk, about unfaithful lovers

classical blues

sexual subliminal

March form

Brass band's most important contributions to jazz. came with structure known as "march form" Marches feature a steady succession of 16-measure strains, each repeated before the passing on to the next. AABBCCCDD

define: Texture (musical)

refers to the way it balances melody and harmony. 3 types; Homophonic, Monophonic, Polyphonic

define: Homophonic texture

in which a melody is supportably a harmonic accompaniment

define: Monophonic texture

in which a melody exists on its own without harmonic accompaniment

Define: Polyphonic texture

in which tow or more melodies of equal importance are played at the same time

Brass Band

influence Jazz by:
instruments
multi-sectional march form
polyphonic texture (collective improvisation)-New Orleans style Jazz

define: Ragtime

traveling pianist
conveyed A.A. polyrhythm is noted form
adopted march form, fitting rhythmic contrast into a succession of separate strain
best known: Scott Joplin
Tom Turpin-first published
Maple Leaf Rag, 1899-Scott Joplin
AABBCCCDD
uses March form as written form

Charles "Buddy" Bolden

Patriarch of Jazz
Born in New Orleans
Instrument; cornet
Nervous break down so he never recorded anything

New Orleans Style

instrumentation included- cornet, clarinet, trombone
collective improvisation, 3 instruments on the front line.... improvised simultaneously in a dense polyphonic texture, most distinctive feature

Freddie Keppard

instrument: cornet
historical importance: touring with his band, he brought New Orleans Jazz to the rest of the country. He refused to record in 1916 because he was afraid some one would steal his style/music

Original Dixieland Jazz Band

Leader: Nick LaRocca, cornet
made first record in 1917
"Livery Stable Blues"/"Dixie Jass Band One-Step"-music recorded

Edward "Kid" Ory

instrument: trombone
moved from New Orleans to West Coast and formed a band.
Recorded under: Spikes Seven Pods of Pepper, Ory's Sunshine Orchestra
made first jazz record performed by a black combo in 1922.

Jelly "Roll" Morton

instrument: Piano
Birthplace: New Orleans
he is considered the first great composer
1915 publishes "Jelly Roll Blues"

First integrated recording session

1923 Morton recorded with a white band called "New Orleans Rhythm Kings"

The Red Hot Peppers

1926, Morton began recording with a group

Jelly's Last Jam

broadway musical about Jelly Roll Morton's life stars.

Joseph "King" Oliver

instrument: cornet
mentored a young Louis Armstrong in New Orleans
King Oliver's Creole Jazz Band

Lil Hardin

pianist, only woman in King Oliver's Creole Jazz Band

Dippermouth Blues

really respected by other cornetists. they often pay homage by copying his solo.
3 chorus solo
titled after Armstrong's nickname

Sidney Bechet

instruments: clarines, soprano saxophone

Rhapsody in Blue

by George Gershwin work for piano and jazz orchestra

Fletcher Henderson

pianist, Arranger, and Band leader
led first important jazz big band
early arrangement by Don Redman, contrasted the sounds of the brass and reed instruments

James P. Johnson

"Father of Stride Piano"
his composition "Carolina Shout" beams a test piece for jazz pianists.
wrote the must for the broadway show Running Wild, which included the song "Charleston"

Coleman Hawkins

inspired by Louis Armstrong
first great tenor saxophone soloist

Edward Kennedy "Duke" Ellington

pianist, arranger, and Jazz most important composer
as an arranger he combined his instruments to create odd voicing
wrote parts specifically designed to feature the strengths of this individual players
1927, first big break at the Cotton Club

James "Bubber" Miley

star soloist in Ellington's band at Cotton Club
known for his "grown trumpet'
co-wrote "East St. Louis Toodle-O"

Louis Armstrong

first records were made in 1923 with Oliver's Creole Jazz Band. he played 2nd cornet
born in new orleans
1918 replaces King Oliver in a band with Kid Ory when Oliver moves to Chicago
1918 playing in Fate Marable's orchestra on river boat excursions
1923 moves to Chicago to join King Oliver's Creole Jazz Band;
marries Lil Hardin
1924 moves to New York to join Fletcher Henderson band; records with Blue Five BAnd
1925/1928 makes Hot Five/Hot Seven recording which establish Armstrong as Jazz's first great soloist and redefine jazz as a soloist's art

Heebie Jeebies

the piece that popularizes scat singing by Louis Armstrong

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