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Conditional Amino Acids

Can make from essential amino acids (Ex: tyr/phe)

Acquired Amino Acids

Become essential based on disease (Ex: PKU - tyr becomes essential b/c you can't make it from phe)

What is trypsin's role in protein digestion?

Trypsin activates almost all other proteases in intestine along w/ digesting protein itself. When no protein is left trypsin binds to intestine receptors to tell pancreas to stop releasing enzymes.

Where are amino acids absorbed?

Mostly proximal jejunum

How are macropeptides absorbed?

Transcellular: Via endosome through one side of the cell and out the other
Paracellular: Through tight junctions between cells

What are BCAA used for?

Taken up into muscle to be used for the creation of new protein or to be catabolized into energy

Where does the liver get its energy from?

Oxidative deamination; half from a.a. catabolism

Transamination

Moving amino groups between compounds

Oxidative Deamination

Amino group removed and eventually attached to alpha-KG to glutamine acid and produces NADH

Albumin Roles

1) Transports stuff in blood
2) Oncotic pressure

What is glutamine used for?

Most abundant a.a. released between meals when muscle catabolism of BCAA is increased; used as fuel source for mucosal cells, leukocytes, and macrophages; in normal conditions it is used as energy

Factors that increase Gout

1) Alcohol 2) Fructose 3) High purine intake

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