Conditional Amino Acids
Can make from essential amino acids (Ex: tyr/phe)
Acquired Amino Acids
Become essential based on disease (Ex: PKU - tyr becomes essential b/c you can't make it from phe)
What is trypsin's role in protein digestion?
Trypsin activates almost all other proteases in intestine along w/ digesting protein itself. When no protein is left trypsin binds to intestine receptors to tell pancreas to stop releasing enzymes.
Where are amino acids absorbed?
Mostly proximal jejunum
How are macropeptides absorbed?
Transcellular: Via endosome through one side of the cell and out the other
Paracellular: Through tight junctions between cells
What are BCAA used for?
Taken up into muscle to be used for the creation of new protein or to be catabolized into energy
Where does the liver get its energy from?
Oxidative deamination; half from a.a. catabolism
Moving amino groups between compounds
Amino group removed and eventually attached to alpha-KG to glutamine acid and produces NADH
1) Transports stuff in blood
2) Oncotic pressure
What is glutamine used for?
Most abundant a.a. released between meals when muscle catabolism of BCAA is increased; used as fuel source for mucosal cells, leukocytes, and macrophages; in normal conditions it is used as energy
Factors that increase Gout
1) Alcohol 2) Fructose 3) High purine intake