Medieval view that the earth was an unmoving object located at the center of the universe, and that the moon, sun, and planets all moved in perfectly circular paths around the earth, while beyond the planets lay a sphere of fixed stars, with heaven still farther beyond; idea came from Greek philosopher Aristotle; Greek Astronomer Ptolemy expanded the theory
The intellectual movement in Europe, initially associated with planetary motion and other aspects of physics, that by the seventeenth century had laid the groundwork for modern science.
Theory developed by Copernicus. The theory went against the church teachings, showing the sun was the center of the universe (not Earth), and planets revolve around the sun.
Scientist who built the first telescope and proved that planets and moons move. Persecuted for supporting Copernicus' ideas
a logical approach to solving problems by observing and collecting data, formulating hypotheses, testing hypotheses, and formulating theories that are supported by data
English mathematician and scientist who invented differential calculus and formulated the theory of universal gravitation, a theory about the nature of light, and three laws of motion. His treatise on gravitation, presented in Principia Mathematica (1687), was supposedly inspired by the sight of a falling apple.
An intellectual movement concentrated in France during the 1700's developed rational laws to describe social behavior and applied their findings in support of human rights and liberal economic theories.
an implicit agreement among people that results in the organization of society
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
Member of a group of Enlightenment thinkers who tried to apply the methods of science to the improvement of society
French, perhaps greatest Enlightenment thinker. Deist. Mixed glorification and reason with an appeal for better individuals and institutions. Wrote Candide. Believed enlightened despot best form of government.
Philosophe who wrote "Spirit of Laws" in 1748. He described the British model of divided branches of government with checks and balances as the ideal system, later influencing the framing of the U.S. Constitution.
French philosopher, social and political theorist, musician ,botanist, and one of the most eloquent writers of the Age of Enlightenment, He expounded the view that science, art and social institutions have corrupted himankind and that the natural, or primitive, state is morally superior to the civilzed state, Naturalism.
English writer and early feminist who denied male supremacy and advocated equal education for women