Review for Biology Final

27 terms by rkelley

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Cell Division

The process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells

Chromatids

One of two identical sister parts of a duplicated chromosome

Centromere

Area where chromatids of a chromosome are attached

Interphase

Period of the cell cycle between cell divisions

Cell Cycle

Series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide

Mitosis

Part of the eukaryotic cell division during which the cell nucleus divides

Prophase

During this phase the chromatin condenses into chromosomes; the centrioles and a spindle begin to form; the nuclear membrane breaks down

Metaphase

During this phase the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell and each chromosome is connected to a spindle fiber at its centromere

Anaphase

During this phase the sister chromatids separate into individual chromosomes and are moved apart

Telophase

During this phase the chromosomes gather at opposite ends of the cell and lose their distinct shape; two nuclear membranes form

Cyclin

One of a family of closely related proteins that regulate the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells

Independent Assortment

Independent segregation of alleles during the formation of gametes

Incomplete dominance

Situation when one allele is not completely dominant over the other

Codominance

When both alleles for a trait contribute to the phenotype of an organism

Diploid

When a cell has both sets of homologous chromosomes

Haploid

When a sell contains only one set of chromosomes and only a single set of genes

Tetrad

Structure that contains 4 chromatids that forms during meiosis

Operator

Region of chromosome in an operon to which the repressor binds when the operon is "turned off"

Operon

A group of genes working together

RNA Polymerase

Enzyme that binds to DNA and separates the DNA strands during transcription

Promoter

Region of DNA that indicates to an enzyme where to bind to make RNA

Inton

Sequence of DNA that is not involved in coding for a protein

Exon

Expressed sequence of DNA; codes for a protein

Codon

Three-nucleotide sequence of mRNA that codes for a single amino acid

Anticodon

Group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon

DNA Polymerase

Enzyme involved in DNA replication that joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule

Nondisjunction

Error in meiosis in which homologous chromosomes fail to separate

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