Botany Exam 2 Ch. 11

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Hormone

An organic compound in multicellular organisms that causes developmental or growth responses in target cells.

Auxin

The first plant hormone discovered; produced in or near apical meristems suppresses the growth of axillary buds; stimulates growth of plant cells.

Apical Dominance

The suppression of axillary bud growth by auxin produced by a terminal bud.

Gibberellin

Member of a group of plant hormones affecting cell elongation and seed germination.

Bolting

The rapid production of a long flowering stalk; caused by gibberellin.

Tissue Culture

A method of growing a whole plant, plant organs, or plant tissues from cells in an artificial medium containing nutrients and hormones.

Cytokinin

A hormone synthesized in roots that controls cell division and differentiation; counteracts apical dominance and delays aging of leaves

Senescence

the organic process of growing older and showing the effects of increasing age

Ethylene

A gas that acts like a hormone, causing responses to mechanical stress and stimulating aging responses such as fruit ripening and leaf abscission.

Abscisic Acid

A hormone that controls the opening and closing of stomata by causing water to enter or leave guard cells. Also establishes dormancy in seeds and other plant organs.

Vernalization

Use of cold treatment to hasten flowering.

Phototropism

Growth toward or away from light.

Photoperiodism

A plant's response to the relative lengths of night and day.

Short-Day Plants

A plant that flowers when days are shorter than a critical length; actually flowers when night length is longer than a critical length.

Long-Day Plants

Plant that flowers only when the day length is longer than a critical length. Actually flowers when the night length is shorter than the critical length.

Day Neutral Plants

A plant that flowers regardless of the day length.

Circadian Rhythm

A biological cycle of approximately 24 hours.

Solar Tracking

Heliotropism; Describes flowers or leaves that either follow the sun or avoid the sun throughout the day

Tropism

A growth response produced by a hormone that causes turning toward or away from an external stimulus.

Gravitropism

Growth toward or away from gravity.

Thigmonasty

Sudden closing of mimosa leaves when touched

Determinate growth

A growth pattern in which an organism or tissue grows for a limited time, typical of animals and floral meristem.

Indeterminate Growth

Unlimited growth throughout the life of a plant. Many vegetative meristems.

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