A History of Modern Psychology (Chapters 1-8)

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Course: History and Systems of Psychology (PSY 418) Instructor: Dr. John Koeppel (University of Southern Mississippi) Textbook: A History of Modern Psychology, 9th Edition (Schultz)

1965

In what year did the Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences begin publication?

history

Psychology is marked by diversity and divisiveness. The one aspect of the discipline that provides cohesiveness and a common ground for discourse is its:

experimentation

The hallmark of psychology's separation from philosophy was its reliance on:

altered and/or deleted some of Jung's writings to present him in a manner suiting his family and followers.

An "autobiography" of Jung was evidently written not by Jung but by an assistant who:

free association

Freud's idea "Einfall" was translated to English into the term ________ which means something other than what Freud implied in the original German.

being prevented from using graduate library facilities.
not being allowed to participate in some seminar topics.
being barred from some laboratory facilities.

Even when some women were admitted to graduate programs in psychology, they still encountered many barriers to their success, such as:

Kenneth Clark.

The first African American president of the APA was:

personalistic

The viewpoint that whatever discovery was about to happen today, Freud would discover it would be an argument for which of the following theories?

his findings challenged the prevailing view in stimulus-response (S-R) learning theory.

In the 1970s, the publication of the research of John Garcia was significantly delayed because:

scientific revolution

In Kuhn's philosophy of science, when Einstein's theory of relativity replaced Galilean-Newtonian physics, a(n) ________ occurred.

mechanism

The doctrine that natural processes are mechanically determined and capable of explanation by the laws of physics and chemistry is:

Effects are predictable and measurable.

Which idea has psychology borrowed from natural physics?

experimental and quantitative methods could be applied to the study of human nature.

Philosophers and scientists joined in agreement that:

experience

Empiricism attributes all knowledge to

Descartes

In the 20th century, Hull described and explained behavior by mathematical formulas, axioms, and postulates. Thus, he illustrated whose notion that certainty of knowledge is accomplished by the application of mathematics to science?

thought

Descartes argued that all processes are functions of the body except:

reflex action

Descartes is often called the author of the theory of:

pineal body

Descartes posited that the mind-body interaction occurred in the:

innate

Descartes theorized that we are born with knowledge of the axioms of geometry. Thus, these axioms are ________ ideas.

materialists

Those who argue today that behavior is no more than the action of chemicals and electrical events in the brain might be labeled "modern ________."

J. Müller

Until the work of ________, experimentation was not the preferred method in physiology.

4

In his research, Flourens localized specific functions to how many brain areas?

Gall

________ produced the theory of cranioscopy.

Galvani

The researcher credited with the finding or conclusion that nerve impulses are electrical within the neuron is:

Helmholtz

Who devised a theory of color vision as well as conducted research on audition?

Weber

Who developed both the two-point threshold and the concept of the just noticeable difference?

developed the idea of the pleasure principle.

While euphoric and suffering from delusions of grandeur, Fechner:

whether or not a stimulus is present or absent, sensed or not sensed.

Fechner proposed two ways to measure the lowest level of a sensation. One was the point of stimulus intensity below which no sensation is reported and above which subjects do experience a sensation; the other was:

geometrically

In Fechner's Law, as one variable increases arithmetically, the other variable increases:

sensation; stimulation

In the original source material from one of his books, Fechner states that, "________ depends on ________".

physiological psychology

In 1867, Wundt offered the first course ever given in:

2.2 pages a day for over 50 years.

Wundt's productivity as a writer can be quantified by his output, which averaged:

judgments about the size and intensity of physical stimuli.

Wundt's observers used introspection to report:

sensation and feelings

According to Wundt, there were two elementary forms of experience, namely:

the process of organizing mental elements into a whole.

Wundt's doctrine of apperception refers to:

it was not seen as having practical value.

Wundtian psychology in Germany was slow to develop because:

Ebbinghaus

While Wundt had argued that learning and memory could not be studied experimentally, who soon proved him wrong?

introspection

Titchener discarded aspects of Wundt's system, including:

Experimental Psychology: A Manual of Laboratory Practice (1901-1905).

One of Titchener's most profound influences on the development of experimentation in psychology was his publication:

Ladd-Franklin

Who scolded Titchener for still practicing "a very old fashioned standpoint" in excluding women from psychology meetings?

Washburn

Who was Titchener's first doctoral student?

To identify the physiological correlates of the elements.
The determination of the laws of association of elements of consciousness.
The reduction of conscious processes.

Which of the following was a topic to be explored by Titchener's psychology?

existential

By the 1920s, the term used by Titchener for his system of psychology was ________.

existed long before Titchener used the method.

Substantial doubts about, and attacks on, introspection:

develop a working vocabulary free of meaning.

Ordinary words such as "table" were not to be used by Titchener's introspectionists. Therefore, it became a goal to:

retrospection

Because some time elapsed between the experience and the reporting of it, critics charged that introspection was really a form of:

his experimental method and a strong position to protest.

The two most important contributions of Titchener's system to modern psychology are:

the work of Darwin and Galton and comparative research.

The most significant immediate antecedents of functionalism were:

There were too many identified species to fit two by two into a boat.

Why, after many centuries of accepting biblical stories, did scholars question the one about Noah's ark?

fact of variation among members of the species.

The most fundamental point of Darwin's theses was the:

Darwin had underestimated the power of natural selection.
under drought conditions, more thick- than thin-beaked birds survived and reproduced.
when heavy rains became common, birds with slender beaks flourished.

In the study of finches' beaks, the biologists Peter and Rosemary Grant found that:

comparative psychology.

The influence of Darwin's work can be seen most directly in:

eugenics

The early 20th-century American government policy of sterilizing mentally retarded females is an example of:

Galton

Who was the first to show that human mental characteristics followed a normal distribution?

the effects of childhood experiences on the adult.

Galton found that a substantial proportion of word associations were evidence of:

Descartes

According to ________, animals have no soul and thus are automata.

stimulation of the development of comparative psychology.

Despite Romanes's deficiencies in methodology, he is respected by scientists for his:

Spencer

Who did Darwin call "our philosopher"?

Each nation should have a social welfare program that supports the poor.

Which of the following statements is NOT part of social Darwinism?

studied psychic phenomena and moved away from scientific psychology.

James was vocally criticized by other early psychologists because he:

William James

Although it took twelve years to complete, this person's great book on psychology represented a commitment to evolutionary principles and a rejection of Wundt's approach to psychology.

the changing nature of consciousness prevents its analysis into mental elements.

William James used the term "stream of consciousness" to indicate that:

Calkins

In contemporary measures of memory, a common task is to assess one's learning of paired associates. This technique was developed by:

the variability hypothesis.

Hollingworth's research refuted:

child development.

Hall's Pedagogical Seminary reflected his early interest in:

Hall

The introduction of psychoanalysis to the American public was accomplished by:

recapitulation theory.

The notion that children's development reflects the history of the human race is the:

Behavior cannot be properly understood or analyzed into simple stimulus-response units. Behavior must be understood in terms of its result and the adaptive significance of the behavior to the organism.

John Dewey is credited with initiating the early development of functional psychology in his paper entitled, "The Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology." What was the major point that Dewey made in this paper?

adaptive and essential for an organism's survival.

For Angell, the fact that consciousness exists demonstrates that it is:

literary and artistic creations of a culture

Like Wundt, Carr proposed that studying ________ would illuminate mental processes.

to embrace it.

The American public's response to the new science of psychology was:

his meeting with Galton while at Cambridge University.

Cattell's interest in mental tests probably was aroused most by:

study whatever they liked.

Unlike Titchener, Cattell believed graduate students should:

Binet

The first effective tests of mental faculties were developed by:

separate the neurotic from the average recruit.

Woodworth's Personal Data Sheet was designed to:

Edison

An "intelligence test" developed by ________ raised doubts about the validity of such tests.

Goodenough

Who developed the Draw-A-Man Test, a widely used nonverbal intelligence test for children?

Münsterberg

Who wrote Psychotherapy?

Lillian Gilbreth

The first person to earn a PhD in industrial/organizational psychology was:

Münsterberg's

Whose therapeutic technique might be described as "therapist-centered?"

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