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Chapters 1 (also use http://quizlet.com/8594658/famous-psychologists-flash-cards/) Chapter 2 (http://quizlet.com/9119446/psych-ch-2-flash-cards/) Chapter 5 (http://quizlet.com/9431020/sensation-and-perception-flash-cards/) Chapters 9 (http://quizlet.com/10259142/ch-9-motivation-and-emotion-flash-cards/) Chapter 6 (handwritten flashcards), 12

(1) According to the American Psychological Association, what are 3 important ethical guides that must be followed in conducting an experiment?

voluntary participation, informed consent, confidentiality

(1) The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied

independent variable

(1) The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable

dependent variable

(1) (between 0 and +1) Indicates a direct relationship, meaning that 2 things increase together or decrease together. (example: in growing children, height correlates with weight)

positive correlation

(1) (between 0 and -1) Indicates an inverse relationship; as one thing increases, the other decreases. (example:self-esteem and depression)

negative correlation

(1) The scientific study of behavior and mental processes

psychology

(1) How the natural selection of traits promotes the perpetuation of one's genes

evolutionary

(1) How we learn observable responses

behavioral

(1) How we encode, process, store, and retrieve info

cognitive

(1) a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion

random sample

(1) an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles

case study

(1) The group in an experiment that is exposed to the treatment

experimental group

(1) The group in an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment

control group

(1) A substance or condition that is assumed to be an active agent

placebo

(1) A procedure in which participants and research staff are ignorant (blind) about who has received the treatment or a placebo

double-blind

(1) Types of research:
________ is used to observe and record behavior
________ is used to assess how well one event predicts another.
________ is used to explore cause-effect

descriptive, correlational, experimental

(2) The neuron fiber that carries messages to other neurons is the...

axon

(2) There is a tiny space between the axon of a sending neuron and the dendrite of a receiving neuron. This small space is called the...

synaptic gap

(2) The neuron's response to stimulation is an 'all-or-none response,' meaning that the intensity of the stimulus determines...

whether or not an impulse is generated

(2) When a neural impulse reaches the end of an axon, it triggers the release of chemical messengers called...

neurotransmitters

(2) Endorphins are released in the brain in response to...

pain or vigorous exercise

(2) Usually, the sympathetic nervous system arouses us for action and the parasympathetic nervous system calms us down. Together, the 2 systems make up the...

autonomic nervous system

(2) The spinal chord is part of the...

central nervous system

(2) The endocrine system produces chemical messengers that travel through the bloodstream and influence our behaviors and emotions. These chemical substances are...

hormones

(2) The pituitary gland releases hormones that influence growth and the activity of other glands. The pituitary gland is part of the...

endocrine system

(2) Consciousness is our awareness of ourselves and our environment. Failure to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere is called...

inattentional blindness

(2) The brain is about....lbs and contains around....neurons

3, 100 billion

(2) Phineas Gage's mishap would lead to important information about the role of the .... in the brain

frontal lobe

(2) About every...minutes, we cycle through....stages of sleep

90, 5

(2) Importance of sleep (4 reasons)

protection, restoration, processing, growth and development

(5) The process by which we organize and interpret sensory information is called...

perception

(5) Rods allow us to see light when we are:
a) walking our dog at 10pm
b) going from a dim to a bright room
c) leaving school at 3am
d) enjoying lunch in the commons

a) walking our dog at 10pm

(5) The blind spot is where...

nerve bundles leave the eye at the optic nerve

(5) Billy Bob is among the 8% of males afflicted with color blindness. Which cone systems are probably failing BB?

red and green

(5) The pitch of a sound is...

whether it is higher or lower

(5) The detection and encoding of stimulus energies (like light) by the nervous system is called...

sensation

(5) Perception is the process by which...

sensory input is organized and interpreted

(5) The amount of stimulus our senses can detect 50% of the time

absolute threshold for our senses

(5) Soothing musical audiotapes accompanied by faint, imperceptible verbal messages designed to increase a desire to lose weight best illustrate...

subliminal stimulation

(5) Decibels are a measurement of....

the volume of a sound

(5) Some people are better than others at detecting slight differences in the tastes of various blends of coffee. This best illustrates the importance of...

difference thresholds

(5) Weber's law is useful for understanding...

difference thresholds

(5) The area where transduction occurs in the back of the eye is the...

retina

(5) Sensory adaptation refers to...

reduced sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus

(5) Which visual receptor cells are best at detecting fine detail and color during daytime?

cones

(5) The ability to simultaneously process the pitch, loudness, melody, and meaning of a song best illustrates....

parallel processing

(5) Our sense of hearing is known as....

audition

(5) Sound wave vibrations are transmitted by three tiny bones located in the...

middle ear

(5) As a rock musician who has spent too many hours listening to or playing loud music, Joey is beginning to lose his hearing. It is most likely that this hearing loss results from damage to...

hair cells (celia) in the cochlia

(5) Olfactory receptor cells are essentially for our sense of...

smell

(5) With his eyes closed and his nose plugged, Josh was unable to taste the difference between an onion and a potato. His experience best illustrates the importance of...

sensory interaction

(5) The system for sensing the position and movement of muscles, tendons, and joints

kinesthesis

(5) Receptor cells for the vestibular sense are located in the...

inner ear

(5) Gestalt Perception is best described as the way we perceive...

the big picture

(5) The same stimulus pattern can trigger more than one perception. This is best illustrated by...

reversible figure-ground relationships

(5) The perception of an object as distinct (different) from its surroundings is called...

figure-ground perception

(5) The visual cliff is a lab device for testing...in infants

depth perception

(5) Holding 2 index fingers in font of the eyes can create the perception of a floating finger sausage. This best illustrates the effect of...

retinal disparity

(5) Perceiving objects as unchanging even as illumination and retinal images change is known as:
(perceiving an apple as red even in a darkened room)

perceptual (color) constancy

(5) As the retinal image of a horse galloping towards you becomes larger, it is unlikely that the horse will appear to grow larger. This best illustrates the importance of...

size constancy

(5) The philosopher John Locke believed that people...

learn to perceive the world through experience

(5) The ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or inverted visual field is called...(when one sense is altered and we adjust)

perceptual adaptation

(5) A mental predisposition that influences what we perceive is a....

perpetual set

(5) Our assumptions and expectations often provide a(n)....for viewing reality.

perceptual set

(5) Railroad tracks appear to converge in the distances. This provides a cue for depth perception known as...

linear perspective

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