Which of the following is a disadvantage of the traditional collective bargaining process which typically results in three-year contracts between employers and workers:
It does not encourage ongoing communication and problem-solving between labor and management
Equity in the employment relationship suggests that, in general, employees should receive the same treatment in terms of economic rewards, employment policies, and employee security.
The crucial feature of collective bargaining is that management's traditional authority to unilaterally establish terms and conditions of employment is replaced by ____________________ negotiations.
The official policy of the Unites States is to protect workers' rights to act together for mutual aid and protection in the workplace and to promote collective bargaining as a way to resolve workplace conflict.
In nonunion environments, management has unilateral control over when and how employees are allowed to express their voice.
One dimension of voice is industrial democracy. The rationale for industrial democracy is:
Political democracy should extend to the workplace.
Conflicts between employers and employees can best be described as conflicts between:
Property rights and individual rights
Generally, if the majority of workers in a particular workplace want union representation, their employer is required by U.S. law to negotiate with them over wages, hours, and working conditions.
A union contract is:
a legally binding document that describes the terms of employment (e.g., wages hours, working conditions).
In the United States, younger workers are:
Significantly less likely to belong to a union than older workers
Despite media portrayals, strikes in the U.S. are a rare phenomenon.
Workplace governance under the mainstream economics model should include:
Government intervention in the form of laws and rules that protect the rights of individuals to enter contracts
The "labor problem" is characterized by long hours, low wages, unsafe working conditions and job insecurity stemming from management's ability to exploit and oppress workers.
In the critical industrial relations school, the primary aim of labor unions should be to:
Replace capitalism with socialism.
According to the human resource management school, the problem with today's labor unions is not that they interfere with competition in the market, but rather that they interfere with the development of a healthy working relationship between management and employees.
According to the mainstream economics school of thought, employees exercise voice in the employment relationship by:
exiting and entering into employment arrangements
According to the human resource management school, equity will be achieved only:
If employers become responsive to employee needs
The industrial relations school of thought rests on the assumption that labor market outcomes are determined by:
the relative bargaining strength of parties to the employment relationship
Which of the following best describes the pluralist view of conflict in the workplace:
Not all workplace issues can be thought of and resolved through a focus on shared interests between employers and employees
As long as competition exists in a market, the mainstream economics school of thought would suggest that there is no "labor problem" even if wages are low, work hours are long, etc.
The National War Labor Board, created during WWI and WWII, was intended to:
resolve labor disputes that arose during the wars
The IWW was born out of frustration with the tactics of the AFL which seemed to accept repression of worker efforts to improve wages, hours, and working conditions by judges, armed forces, and business leaders.
The central conflict for the Knights of Labor was not with business owners, but rather with those who were perceived as controlling wealth, without actually producing it.
The AFL concept of exclusive jurisdiction held that workers of a particular craft (or trade) should be represented by just one union and that union should only represent that one craft (or trade).
The CIO formed as a result of:'
Differences with the AFL over unionization by industry, rather than by craft.
The Great Uprising of 1877 was primarily a conflict between:
capital owners and workers in many industries and locations
Revolutionary unionism tries to create ____________________ solidarity rather than solidarity by occupation or industry.
A workplace that is open only to workers who belong to the union is known as:
A closed shop
The first unions in the U.S. were focused at the local level, representing a single craft or trade.
Welfare capitalism is characterized by:
Management systems that emphasize orderly hiring and firing procedures, wage incentives, protective insurance, positive work culture, and employee voice.
When it comes to union rights, the Wagner Act of 1935 was an improvement over previous legislation for all of the following except:
It allowed the courts to issue fines against employers who violated the Act.
U.S. labor law seeks to find a balance between the property rights of company owners and the labor rights of workers.
The industrial relations school was instrumental in establishing the foundations for legal treatment of unions as:
Legally sanctioned organizations with rights and obligations determined by the government.
When it comes to strikes, most state collective bargaining laws:
Prohibit the use of strikes.
The Railway Labor Act could be described as a substantive, rather than as a procedural law, in that it allows the government to dictate certain outcomes of negotiations and grievance processes.
When the Wagner Act (NLRA) was first passed, it was met with widespread support from employers, unions and individuals who recognized it as an important to encouraging industrial peace.
Because U.S. labor law has remained largely unchanged since the Landrum-Griffin Act of 1959, the decisions of the NLRB are predictable and generally insulated from political influence.
Which of the following statements is true:
Common law is a body of laws based on customs, traditions, and judicial precedent rather than on legislative statute.
Under the Wagner Act of 1935, an employer has a legal obligation to do all of the following except:
Provide improved wages, hours and working conditions in response to employees' request.
The Landrum-Griffin Act of 1959 (Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosing Act) was passed primarily to:
Ensure democratic standards for unions and increase transparency of union financial activities.