Forebrain - involved in gen. movement
Forebrain - limbus = 'border' - consist hippocampus, amygdala, cingulate gyrus. deeply involved in the process of memory formation & regulation of emotions
Brain Stem - bulbous structure on top of brain stem. internal structural elements include the thalamus & hypothalamus
Brain Stem - contain structures such as superior colliculus & inferior colliculus
Brain Stem - composed of the pons, the medulla, & cerebellum
Brain Stem, the "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance.
Central nervous System (CNS)
the brain & spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
cranial nerves outside the brain & spinal cord. sig components - neuromuscular, sensory, enteric, autonomic
PNS - connection to the musces of the body, allowing for the control of body movement
PNS - sensory organs of the eyes, ears, vesicular system, tongue, and nose and their cranial nerve connections to the brain. include other pathway of sensory input rom body - repond to touch, temp & pain. receptor located within muscles, tendons, & joints that provide info about muscle tension & body position
Enteric Nervous System
PNS - elaborate network of neurons and connections within the gastrointestinal system. regulate disgustion, moving food through the ststem, absorption of fluid, hormonal secretion, and quite probably other things yet unknown. sometimes referred as part of the autonomic nervous system. extensive neural interconnection with the CNS
Autonomic Nervous System
PNS regulate various body organs & internal functions - heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory & digestion. outside of our awareness. divided into 2 complementary components: the sympathetic nervous system & the parasympathetic nervous system
optic, olfactory, vagus, auditory-vestibular - 12 of 'em nerves emerging directly from the brain to many regoin of upper body
parasmpathetic regulation of heart, lungs, stomach, etc (medulla)
hearing, balance (pons)
cerebrum, basal ganglia, limbic system
diencephalon, midbrain, hindbrain, cerebellum
'flight or fight' increase heart rate, blood pressure, dilates lung airway, eye pupil, constrict bladder, decrease intestinal motility.
'rest and recuperation'. decrease heart rate, decrease blood pressure, constrict air way, eye pupil, stimulate bladder, stimulate intestinal motility
norepinephrine & acetylcholine
a chemical NT, a signaling molecule used when the sympathetic nerve fibers is making a connection with various target tissue
a chemical NT, a signaling molecule used when the parasympathetic neural connection with target issue
a stimulating effect on the sympathetic nervous system.
a decreasing effect on the sympathetic nervous system.
a stimulating effect on the parasympathetic nervous system.
a decreasing effect on the parasympathetic nervous system.
Evolution of Nervous System in Animals
specialized in rapid communication. brain = locus of central control of nervous system. undergo evo refinement
animals, not plant. do not have nerve cell but able to execute simple movement.
distinct cousin of jelly fish. have a 'nerve net' that allows simple signal comm.
simple nervous system. loosely connected network of cell
nematode/roundworm. widely studied by bio-ist b/c relatively transparent. can track the development of organism. about 1 millimeter. consist 302 neurons. complete wiring diagram of nervous system is KNOWN.
flatworm. extended network of interconnected neurons, two clusters of neurons at the head end of the worm.
fruit fly. sophisticated brain. studied extensively
Basic Structure of Vertebrate Brain
forebrain. midbrain. hindbrain. spinal cord
dominated by the cerebrum
dominated by optic tectum
dominated by the medulla & cerebullum
Cerebrum Surface Area
not smooth, have bumps & groovers. sheet of neural tissues. around 2 - 4 millimeters but varies in mammals
bumps & grooves. result of cerebrum in many mammals being a highly folded structure
Comparison of Vertebrate Brain
general similarity in structure. distinctive feature = cerebrum in brains
cortex = 'bark'. like a sheet of bark on top of the brain. highly folded so that a larger size can fit inside the skull. if carefully removed & unfolded = size of small newspaper - 2.5 feet
1514 - 1564 - physician & anatomist - 'de humaani corprois fabrica' = on the fabric of the human body'. beautiful drawing of human anatomy
three layers together = dura mater, arachnoid, & pia
1st layer - 'hard/tough mother'
2nd layer - 'spiderweb-like'
3rd layer - 'soft/tender mother'
Cerebral Spinal Fluid
b/t the arachnoid & pia mater - cushion the brain inside the skull
if meninges becomes inflamed as a result of infection. extremely serious occurrence b/c of the close proximity of the brain.
large scale anatomy of the brain. things that you can see without using microscopes
Lobes of Cerebral Cortex
frontal. parietal. occipital & temporal. 8 lobes in total. 4 in right & 4 in left.
planning of movement, speech, and impulsive behavior
responsible for sensations such as pain, temperature, and touch
responsible for vision
involved in hearing, language processing, and memory.
sep. frontal lobe from parietal lobes
sep. temporal from frontal & partial lobe
divide left & right hemisphere
outside bottom or underside
inside, revealed by cutting brain in half down the middle, along the longitudinal fissure
can see it medial view. think bundle of nerve fibers. abt 200 million of 'em. connect left & right hemispheres of the cerebral cortex.
divides the body into anterior and posterior portions
cavities within the interior of the brain. filled with CSF - CSF flow b/t ventricles and the meninges
CELL BODY. darker-hued gray matter consists largely of cell bodies of neurons & certain kinds of gila cells.
NERVE FIBER. consist largely of nerve fibers (axon) that connect together regoins of the cerebral cortex, sending neuronal signals from one place to another in the cortex
causes the white matter to be in a lighter shade
sugar molecule; fuel to run the cellular processes
delivered via the blood
Cardiovascular Circulatory System
carry glucose and oxygen to all the cells of the body
carry blood pumped from the heart to the heada. arteries branches give rise to various others arteries that carry blood into brain
3 major arteries - anterior, middle & posterior which it app. carry blood from heart to cerebral cortex larger branch off to smaller. carry blood to all diff area of brain. oxygen & glucose delivered. cellular waste of carbon dioxide is picked up. small vessel come together to form jugular veins
carry the blood through the neck from the head back to the heart
Anterior Cerebral Arteries
deliver blood to front/top
Middle Cerebral Arteries
deliver blood to middle
Posterior Cerebral Arteries
deliver blood to rear part
involved in process of sensory info
primary connection b/t the brain and endocrine system of glands
Superior Colliculus & Inferior Colliculus
involved in analysis of sensory information
cluster of cell outside the spinal cord all along its length. ganglion = cluster of nerve cell. ganglia = plural of ganglion
Sympathomimetic drug & Parasympatholytic drug. Sympatholytic & parasympathnomimetic.
pull the iris back, opening and dilating the pupil