Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 19

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Plasma

liquid part of blood
91% water 9% proteins, ions, nutrients, gases, waste products, and regulatory substances

Colloid

liquid containing suspended substance that do not settle out of solution

Albumin

makes up 58% of plasma proteins and is important in regulating the movement of water between the tissues and the blood

Globulins

account for 38% of plasma

Fibrinogen

constitutes 4% of plasma proteins and is responsible for the formation of blood clots

Serum

plasma without clotting factors

Formed Elements

RBC's (95%), WBC's and platelets (5%).

Hematopoeisis

process of blood cell production

Hemocytoblasts

stems cells which produce the formed elements of blood

Proerythroblasts

blood cells that develop RBC's

Myeloblasts

blood cells that develop basophils, eosinophils, and neutrophils

Lymphoblasts

blood cells that develop monocytes

Megakaryotes

blood cells that develop platelets

Red Blood Cells

erythrocytes, 700x more than WBC's. 17x more than platelets.
males:5.4 million
females:4.8 million

7.5 micrometers in diameter. biconcave

Hemoglobin

pigmented protein, occupies one third of cell volume, gives red color

Hemolysis

red blood cell rupture followed by hemoglobin release

Globin

polypeptide chain bound to one heme

Heme

red pigmented molecule containing iron atom

Oxyhemoglobin

oxygenated form of hemoglobin

Deoxyhemoglobin

hemoglobin containing no oxygen

Carbaminohemoglobin

carbon dioxide attached to a hemoglobin

Carboxyhemoglobin

carbon dioxide hemoglobin attached with iron

Erythropoiesis

process by which new RBC's are produced

Proerythroblasts

stem cells from which all blood cells originate

Early (basophilic) Erythroblasts

next step after proerythroblasts, after mitotic divisions

Intermediate (polychromatic) Erythroblasts

next after early

Late Erythroblast

next step

Reticulocytes

immature RBC's with no nucleus

Erythropoietin

glycoprotein hormone produced by the kidneys stimulatin bine marrow to produce RBC's by increasing the number of proerythroblasts

Macrophages

located in spleen, liver, and lymphatic tissue take up hemoglobin released from ruptured RBC's.

Biliverdin

non iron part of the heme group

Bilirubin

converted from biliverdin released into plasma

Free Bilirubin

bilirubin binded albumin taken up by liver cells

Conjugated Bilirubin

free bilirubin joined to glucuronic acid, more water soluble

Bile

the fluid secreted from the liver into the small intestine

Jaundice

yellowish staining of skin and sclerae of eyes caused by buildup of bile

WBC

leukocytes, form thin white layer of cells between plasma and RBC's, lack hemoglobin but have nucleus

Granulocytes

white blood cells with large cytoplasmic granules and lobed nuclei

Neutrophil

granulocyte stain with acidic dyes, up to five nucleus

Eosinophil

stain red, few nucleus

Basophil

stain purple, nucleus hidden by granules

Agranulocytes

WBC's that appear to have no granules

Lymphocytes

nucleus takes up all cytoplasm, cytoplasm barely visible

Monocytes

kidney shaped nuclei, largest WBC,

Ameboid Movement

moving like ameba, how WBC's move

Diapedesis

WBC leave circulation and enter tissues, become thin and elongated and slip between or through cells of blood vessel walls

Chemotaxis

WBC being attracted to foreign materials or dead cells within tissues

Lysozymes

released from neutrophils to destroy certain bacteria

Histamine

in basophils, released into tissues to increase inflammation

Heparin

in basophils, released to inhibit blood clotting

B Cells

stimulated by bacteria or toxins to divide and form cells that produce proteins called antibodies

Antibodies

attach to bacteria and destroy them

T Cells

protect against viruses and other intracellular microorganisms by attacking and destroying the cells in which they are found, involved in the destruction of tumor cells and in tissue graft rejections

Platelets

thrombocytes, minute fragments of cells consisting of a small amount of cytoplasm surrounded by a plasma membrane

Megakaryocytes

produce platelets, extremely large cells

Hemostasis

stoppage of bleeding

Vascular Spasm

the immediate but temporary constriction of a blood vessel that results when smooth muscle within the wall of the vessel contract

Thromboxanes

released from platelets during the formation of a platelet plug

Endothelin

peptide released from endothelial cells

Platelet Plug

accumulation of platelets that can seal small breaks in blood vessels

Platelet Adhesion

occurs when platelets bind to collagen exposed by blood vessel damafe

von Willebrand Factor

protein produced and secreted by blood vessel and endothelial cells

Platelet Release Reaction

activation of platelets attached to collagen

Platelet Aggregation

fibrinogen forms a bridge between the fibrinogen receptors of different platelets resulting in a platelet plug

Coagulation

blood clotting

Blood Clot

network of threadlike protein fibers

Fibrin

protein fibers that trap blood cells, platelets, and fluid

Clotting Factors

factors which determine the ability to form a clot

Thromboplastin

mixture of lipoproteins and phospholipids released from damaged tissues

Prothrombinase

activates factor x, factor v, platelet phospholipids, and ca2+

Prothrombin

converts into enzyme thrombin

Anticoagulants

prevent clotting factors

Antithrombin

plasma protein produced by liver to inactivate thrombin

Prostacyclin

prostaglandin derivative produced by endothelial cells

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid

sodium citrate, prevents blood clotting

Clot Retraction

when a clot begins to condense into a denser compact structure

Serum

fluid squeezed out of a clot during retraction

Fibrinolysis

processes that dissolves the clot

Plasmin

enzyme that hydrolyzes fibrin

Transfusion

the transfer of blood or blood components

Infusion

introduction of a fluid other than blood such as saline or glucose solution into blood

Antigens

molecules on the surface of RBC's

Antibodies

proteins in the plasma

Agglutination

clumping of the RBC's

Aggulitnogens

antigen antibody combination that cause agglutination

Agglutinins

antibodies that cause agglutination

Blood Groups

antigens on the surface or RBC's

ABO Blood Group

system used to categorize human blood based on the presence or absence of ABO antigens on the surface RBC's

Donor

person giving blood

Recipient

person receiving

Rh Blood Group

named for the Rhesus monkey, blood containing Rh antigen

Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn

when the mother is Rh negative and baby is Rh positive, if baby blood leaks through placenta, then the mother begins producing Rh antibodies which then cross through the placenta and causes agglutination and hemolysis of fetal RBC's

Blood Typing

finding the antigens on blood

Crossmatch

donors blood cells are mixed with the recipients serum and the donors serum to see if agglutination occurs

Complete Blood Count

analysis of blood

Red Blood Count

number of RBC's

Hemoglobin Measurement

determines the amount of hemoglobin in a given volume of blood

Hematocrit

percentage of the total blood volume that is comprimised of RBC's

Erythrocytosis

overabundance of red blood cells

Buffy Coat

WBC's and platelets form a thin whitish layer between plasma and RBC's

Normocytes

normal sized blood cells

Microcytes

smaller than normal

Macrocytes

larger than normal

White Blood Count

measures the total number of WBC's in blood

Leukopenia

lower than normal WBC resulting from depression or destruction of red marrow

Leukocytosis

abnormally high WBC

Leukemia

cancer of red marrow often results in leukocytosis but WBC's have abnormal structure and function

Differential White Blood Count

percentage of the five kinds of WBC
neutrophils:60-70%
lymphocytes:20-30%
monocytes:2-8%
eosinophils:1-4%
basophils:.5-1%

Platelet Count

250,000-400,000 per microliter

Thrombocytopenia

platelet count is greatly reduced resulting in chronic bleeding through small vessels and capillaries

Prothrombin TIme Measurement

expresses how long it takes for the blood to start clotting, normally 9-12 seconds

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