What is mutualistic symbiosis?
both organisms benefit from the exchange
What is commensalistic symbiosis?
one benefits and the other isn't harmed
What is parasitic symbiosis?
one benefits (parasite) and the other is harmed in the process (host)
Describe one cross-over example
Staph can be mutualistic or commensal
What are Koch's postulates?
Koch's postulates are the agent must be present in every disease, it must be able to be isolated, it must cause the disease in a healthy animal, and it must be able to be reisolated
mathematical formula for the mechanisms of disease?
As virulence decreases, infectious dose increases and viceversa
What are the defensive mechanisms of disease?
Some of the defensive strategies of microbes are adhesions, where they attach to a portal of entry or receptor, M proteins that resist phagocytosis, and enzyme secretions
What are the offensive mechanisms of disease?
Some offensive strategies of microbes are enzymes that aid in the spread of the organism. Then there are toxins: exotoxins (more toxic) and endotoxins, which are lipids.
Know the non-bacterial defensive and offensive examples
Defensively, viruses can hide from the immune system because they are intracellular parasites. Offensively, they shut down protein synthesis, damage the cell membrane, and replicate.
What are the stages of disease
First, there is the incubation period which is the time between a microbes entrance and the display of symptoms. Second, there is the prodromal stage where symptoms are vague and are just starting to appear. Then, there is the illness stage where signs and symptoms are most severe. Then there is a decline and finally a convalescence stage, where you are back to normal.