Human Growth and Development Ch. 5, 6, 7, 8 Study Guide

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Human Growth and Development Ch. 5, 6, 7, 8 Study Guide

Schemes

Piaget's term for organized patterns of thought and behavior used in particular situations.

Social smiling

Occurs in response to an external stimulus, typically in response to a face. Present 4 to 6 weeks after birth.

Goodness to fit

The degree to which a child's temperament is compatible with the demands and expectations of his or her social environment.

Jerome Kagan

Psychologist who conducted longitudinal studies on temperament, and believed personality was linked to the autonomic nervous system.

Attachment

An emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation.

Myelination

The process by which axons become coated with myelin, a fatty substance that speeds the transmission of nerve impulses from neuron to neuron.

Brain Development

As information of synapes, myelination, cell death, and synaptic pruning occur, preschoolers improve in a wide variety of skills -- physical coordination, preception, attention, memory, language, logical thinking, and imagination.

Preoperational Thought

Piaget's second stage of cognitive development, occuring from ages 2 through 7, as the child learns language, symbolic play, and symbolic drawing, but does not grasp abstract concepts.

Assimilation

Using current schemes to interpret the external world.

Sensorimotor stage

In Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities.

Causality

The relationship between cause and effect.

Infantile amnesia

The inability to remember events that occurred before the age of three.

Scaffolding

When parental behavior supports children's efforts, allowing them to be more skillful than they would be if they were to rely only on their own abilities.

Phoneme

An individual sound that is a basic structural element of language. In a language, the smallest distinctive sound unit.

False beliefs

Between the ages of 3 to 5 children come to understand that the mind can represent objects and events accurately or inaccurately. This type of memory is not ture.

Fagan's Test

Focuses on infant's ability to process information. Estimates a baby's intelligence by comparing amount of time spent looking at an object with amount of time spent looking at familiar object.

Authoritarian Parenting

A parenting style in which the parents are demanding, expect unquestioned obedience, are not responsive to their children's desires, and communicate poorly with their children.

Emotional Development

Emotions are important in early relationships.
-Basic emotions are anger, sadness, joy, surprise, fear, and disgust. Happiness (smile: from birth)(social smile: 6-10 weeks)(laugh: 3-4 months), Anger (general distress: from birth)(anger: 4-6 months), Fear (first fears: 2nd half of first year)(stranger anxiety: 8-12 months)
-Secondary emotions (learned feelings or meda-feelings) embarrassment, shame, guilt, envy, pride. Increase cognitive skills drives these changes. Gains in symbolic representation, language, self-concept support emotional development. Social expectations.

Self conscious emotions

Emotions involving injury to or enhancement of the sense of self, such as guilt, shame, embarrassment, envy, and pride.

Emotional regulation

Refers to strategies we use to adjust the intensity or duration of our emotional reactions to a level that allows us to achieve our goals. It is a crucial component in a child's adaptive functioning and psychological functioning.

Social referencing

'Reading' emotional cues in others to help determine how to act in a particular situation.

Temperament

a persons characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity

Handedness

Preference for using a specific hand.

Strange Situation

A technique where researchers have been able to observe reactions of infants through a series of introductions, separations, & reunions with caregiver & adult strangers.

Styles of attachment

1. Secure Attachment - Parents sensitive and responsive to the infant's needs and emotional signals.
2. Resistant/Anxious Attachment - Parents are inconsistent available in care giving; they react enthusiastically, intrusively or indifferent (May try to connect in ways that inconsistent with the child's emotions or needs)
3. Avoidant Attachment - Parents are emotionally unavailable and insensitive to the child's state of mind.
4. Disorganized Attachment - 80% are abused, neglected, or maltreated.
5. Earned Attachment - Can be earned by therapy or being around other secure attached people.

Gross motor skills

Physical skills that involve the large muscles.

Adaptation

Building schemes through direct interactions with the environment.

Accommodation

Adjusting old schemes and creating new ones to better fit the environment.

Secondary circular reactions

Developing between 4&8 months of age where infant becomes more object-oriented & moves beyond preoccupation with the self.

primary circular reactions

The first of three types of feedback loops in sensorimotor inteligence, this one involving the infant's own body. The infant senses motion, sucking, noise, and other stimulus and tries to understand them

tertiary circular reactions

The third of three types of feedback loops in sensorimotor intelligence, this one involving active exploration and experimentation. The infant explores a range of new activities varying his or her responses as a way of learning about the world.

Information processing approach

Approach to the study of cognitive development by observing and analyzing the mental processes involved in perceiving and handling information.

Zone of proximal Development

Vygotsky's term for the difference between what a child can do alone and what the child can do with help.

Bayley Scales of Infant Development

Uses mental scale, motor scale, and infant behavior profile to predict later development. Measures the infants cognitive, language, motor, scocial-emotional, and adaptive behavior skills.

Initative vs. guilt

Erikson's third stage in psychosocial development, in which children balance the urge to pursue goals with reservations about doing so.

Authoritative Parenting

parenting style characterized by emotional warmth, high standards for behavior, explanation and consistent enforcement of rules, and inclusion of children in decision making

Indulgent Parenting

A parenting style in which parents are involved with their children but place few limits on them.

Gender school

Girls tend to do better in school → self-discipline.

Development quotient

an overall score that combines subscores in motor language adaptive and personal social domains in the gessell assessment of infants

Moral Development

growth in the ability to tell right from wrong, control impulses, and act ethically

Psychoanalytic

the main causes of behavior lie in the unconscious mind

Androgens

the main class of male sex hormones.

Evolution

the process by which species gradually change over time

Gender

the classification of being male or female

Aphasia

loss of speech due to injury or illness

Wernike's area

An area in the Temporal lobe that is crucial to our ability to interpret both written and spoken language.

Broca's area

An area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech

Telegraphic speech

early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram--'go car'--using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting 'auxiliary' words

Syntax

The rules for arranging words into grammatical phrases and sentences

Gender schema theory

the theory that children learn from their cultures a concept of what it means to be a male and female and that they adjust their behavior accordingly

Self recognition

Identification of the self as a physically unique being.

Sex

The biologically based categories of male and female

Prefrontal cortex

The area of the frontal lobe that lies in front of the motor cortex and that is involved in higher mental functions, including thinking, planning, impulse control, and weighing the consequences of behavior

Vygotsky

Sociocultrural Theory; children are social beings and develop their minds through interactions with parents, teachers, and other students.

Language Acquisition Device

Chomsky's concept of an innate, prewired mechanism in the brain that allows children to acquire language naturally

Sensorimotor substages

1. Birth - 1 mo. Infants modify the reflexes with which they are born to make them more adaptive
2. 1-4 mo. Organize separate reflexes into larger behaviors - grasping, mouthing
3. 4-8 mo. Increased interest in world, lack OBJECT PERMANENCE = knowing things exist when you can't see them
4. 8-12 mo. Search for hidden objects, make A-not-B error
5.12-18 mo. Actively explore objects
6. 18-24 mo. Form enduring mental representaitons, use symbols. deferred imitation =repeating other people's behavior long after it occurs

According to Piaget how does the mind build and modify psychological structures?

By assimilation and accommodation.

Describe three types of temperament.

Easy Child, Difficult Child, Slow-to-Warm-Up Child

How can temperament affect a person's development?

It can keep kids from adapting to new experiences. A easy child is positive and adopts easily where a slow-to-learn- child is negative and very slow to adapt.

What is attachment theory?

developed by john bowlby
infants use their primary caregiver as a secure base
children are biologically predisposed to develope attachment with caregivers as a means of increasing the chances of survivial
children develop internal working model of attachments: mental representations of: self, attachment figure, relationships in general

How does attachment affect brain development?

Promotes neural growth.

List four attachment styles.

Secure, Avoidant, Resistant, Disorganized

What determines the structure of attachment?

How much time the infant spends with a caregiver, quality of care, Emotional investment in the child, Social cues, and Temperament.

Describe Piaget's preoperational stage.

Stetches from 2-7, stable concepts are formed, mental reasoning emerges, Egocentrism begins strong but weakens, Magical beliefs constructed, not yet thinking operational way, able to do things mentally before doing them physically.

What are some limitations of preoperational thought?

egocentrism, conservation, hierarchical clissification

Compare Piaget's and Vygoysky's theories of education.

Vygotsky emphasis on importance of inner speech, Piaget views such speech as immature. Vygotsky's theory is social constructivist approach which emphasizes social contexts of learning-fact that knowledge is mutually built & constructed.

Describe the concept theory of mind and discuss how a child theory of mind changes as they develop through early childhood?

Includes awareness that the mind exists and it has connection to the physical world. It can represent objects & events accurately or inaccuratelly, it can actively interpret reality & emotions. In Preschool they use: rehearsal, organization, elaboration and in Preschool they use: scripts, greater elaboration with age.

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