Chapter 12 DNA and RNA

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all of chapter 12 highschool biology for dna and rna

transformation

process in which one strain of bacteria is changed by a gene or genes from another strain of bacteria

bacteriophage

virus that infects bacteria

nucleotide

monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base

base pairing

principle that bonds in DNA can form only between adenine and thymine and between guanine and cytosine

chromatin

granular material visible within the nucleus; consists of DNA tightly coiled around proteins

histone

protein molecule around which DNA is tightly coiled in chromatin

replication

copying process by which a cell duplicates its DNA

DNA polymerase

enzyme involved in DNA replication that joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule

gene

sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait

messenger RNA

RNA molecule that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell

ribosomal RNA

type of RNA that makes up the major part of ribosomes

transfer RNA

type of RNA molecule that transfers amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis

transcription

process in which part of the nucleotide sequence of DNA is copied into a complementary sequence in RNA

RNA polymerase

enzyme similar to DNA polymerase that binds to DNA and separates the DNA strands during transcription

promoter

region of DNA that indicates to an enzyme where to bind to make RNA

intron

sequence of DNA that is not involved in coding for a protein

exon

expressed sequence of DNA; codes for a protein

codon

three-nucleotide sequence on messenger RNA that codes for a single amino acid

translation

decoding of a mRNA message into a polypeptide chain

anticodon

group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon

mutation

change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information

point mutation

gene mutation involving changes in one or a few nucleotides

frameshift mutation

mutation that shifts the "reading" frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide

polyploidy

condition in which an organism has extra sets of chromosomes

operon

group of genes operating together

operator

region of chromosomes in an operon to which the repressor binds when the operon is "turned off"

differentiation

process in which cells become specialized in structure and function

hox gene

series of genes that controls the differentiation of cells and tissues in an embryo

scientist that isolated two different strains of pneumonia and grew them in culture plates then injected each strain into mice then killed the deadly strain with heat then injected it into mice once again was...

Frederick Griffith

when Griffith mixed the harmless strain of bacteria with the heat-killed deadly strain together and injected it into mice and killed the mice the reasoning for this was...

transformation

Avery and other scientists discovered that the ---------- stores and transmits the genetic information from one generation of an organism to the next

nucleic acid DNA

Hershey and Chase marked the protein coat of bacteriophages with...

radioactive phosphorus

Hershey and Chase marked the DNA core of bacteriophages with...

radioactive sulfur

What is the genetic material of the bacteriophage?

DNA

What are nucleotides made up of?

5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base

What are the four nitrogenous bases?

adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine

what is the backbone of a DNA chain made of?

sugar and phosphate groups of each nucleotide

what is the shape of a DNA molecule?

double helix

what holds the two strands of DNA together?

hydrogen bonds

what do nucleosomes do?

they fold enormous lengths of DNA into the tiny space available in the cell nucleus

what are the three main types of RNA?

messenger RNA, transfer RNA, ribosomal RNA

What does RNA polymerase use one strand of DNA for?

as a template from which nucleotides are assembled into a strand of RNA

in RNA what takes the place of thymine?

uracil

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