A&P Cells,tissues and membranes

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Memmlers the Human Body in Health and Disease 11th edition Chap 2

What is an Element?

The substances that make-up all matter.

What is an Atom?

Atoms are the sub-units of elements.

What are Molecules?

Molecules are formed when 2 or more atoms unit on the basis of their electron structures. They are the smallest units of a compound.

What are Compounds?

Substances composed of 2 or more different elements.

Why is water so essential to the human body?

Water is essential to the human body because it is a vital part of all physiological functions.
It is the most abundent compound in the human body.

What is a Mixture?

Mixtures are blends of 2 or more substances.

What are the 3 types of mixtures?

Solution
Suspension
Colloid

What are electrolytes?

Compounds formed by ionic bonds that release ions when they are in solutions. Must be present in exactly the right quantity inside and outside of the cell. Sodiums and calciums are examples of electrolyts.

What is Matter?

Matter is anything that takes up space.

What are organic Compounds?

The chemical compounds that characterize living things are called organic compounds.

What are 3 types of organic compounds?

Carbohydrates, Lipids, and proteins ar the main types of organic compounds.

What are enzymes and how do they work?

Enzymes are proteins that are essential for metabolism. Enzymes act as catalysts in the 100s of reactions that take place within cells, they are not changed or used up in the process, they perform only one specific action adn their shape must match the shape of the subtrate it combines with.

What is the basic unit of life?

Cells

What is cytology?

The study of cells.

What are the different types of microscopes?

Transmission Electron, Scanning electron, and Compound Light.

What is mieosis?

The process of dividing the sex cells.

What is mitosis?

Symatic cells, the process of dividing all other cells other than sex cells.

What is movement that does not require cellular energy?

Passive Movement

What is movement that does require cellular energy?

Active Movement

What is Diffusion?

The constant movement of particles from a relatively higher concentration to a lower concentration.

What is Osmosis?

The diffusion of water through a semi-permeable membrane.

What are the risk factors of cancer?

Viruses, Diet, Heredity, Physical Irratants, Ionic Radiations, and Chemicals.

What is the purpose of a Microscope?

To examine things that are not visible to the naked eye.

Why is the nucleus called the control center?

Because it contains the chromosomes, the heredity units that directs all cellular activity.

What is it called when cancer cells multiply and spread?

Uncontrolled Growth Cells

What are the studies that concentrate on the human bodies structures and functions.

Anatomy and Physiology (Anatomy-study of structure,Physiology study of function)

What is Pathology?

The study of disease.

What are the units of life called?

Cells

Specialized groups of cells make up what?

Tissue

Tissues work together to form what?

Organs

When organs work together for the same purpose they form what?

Systems of the body.

The body is divided into large spaces called what?

Cavities

What system is used for all scientific measurement?

The Metric System

What is DNA?

The genetic material of a cell, carries teh genetic information. They make-up chromosomes.

Describe the structure of a cell?

Outer Layer- Plasma Membrane- controls the in/out of the cell.
Center- Nucleus- Largest organelle, contains chromosomes considered the control center.
Cytoplasm- material that fills the cell the liquid is called cytosol.

What is the main method for maintaining homeostasis?

Feedback

What is homeostasis?

The state of balance required for the body and its systems. Including body temp., fluids, respirations, and blood pressure.

What is metabolism?

The life substaining reactions that occur in the system of the human body.

What are the 2 stages of metabolism?

Catabolism- The breaking down process.
Annabolism- the building up process

What is the difference between extracellular and intracelllular fluid?

Extracellular fluid - the fluid located outside the cell
Intracellular fluid- the fluid located inside the cell

What are the 2 main cavities of the body?

Dorsel Cavity: contains the cranial or spinal cavity.
Ventral Cavity: contains the diaphragm, thoracic cavity, mediasternum, the abdominopelvic cavity, abdominal cavity, adn the pelvic cavity.

What is the difference between positive feedback and negative feedback?

Positive feedback a constant reaction caused from a specific action (childbirth)
Negative feedback the process in which systems keep the body in normal range by reversing any upward or downward changes. Such as body temperature.

The body is divided into what 3 planes?

Frontal ( Ventral,coronal) Front/Back
Sagittal: Left/Right
Transverse (horizontal) Top/Bottom

Name the 3 tissue sections.

Cross Section- a cut made perpendicular to the long axis of an organ
Longitudinal Section- Parallel to the long axis of an organ.
Oblique Section- A cut made at an angle.

What is a neutral ph?

7.0

What is the Ph level of blood?

7.35-7.45

What is the Ph level of urine?

averages 6.0 (but may range from 4.6-8.0)

What is an acid?

A chemical substance capable of donating hydrogen (H+) ion to another substance

What is a base?

A chemical substance usually containing a hydroxide ion(OH-) that can accept a hydrogen ion.also called an alkali

A reaction between an acid and a base create a?

Salt (NaCl)

What is the chemical symbol for oxygen?

O

What is the chemical symbol for carbon?

C

What is the chemical symbol for Hydrogen?

H

What is the chemical symbol for Nitrogen?

N

What is the chemical symbol for Calcium?

Ca

What is the chemical symbol for Phosphorus?

P

What is the chemical symbol for Potassium?

K

What is the chemical symbol for Sulfur?

S

What is the chemical symbol for Sodium?

Na

What is the chemical symbol for Chlorine?

CL

What is the chemical symbol for Iron?

Fe

What is the chemical symbol for Magnesium?

Mg

Maintains a constant ph of a solution?

Buffer

What is an isotope?

These Forms are alike in their numbers or protons and electrons but differ in their atomic weights because of differing numbers or neutrons in the nucleus.

The main types of organic compound are?

Carbohydrates(CHO used for energy), Lipids(mainly found in fats),Proteins (only one that contains nitrogen in addition to carbon,hydrogen and oxygen)

What is a lipid?

a class of organic compounds mainly found in the body as fat.(fats insulate the body,protect internal organs and the main form of which energy is stored

Simple fats are made from a substance called?

glycerol (commonly known as glycerin,& in combo with fatty acids,simple fats are described as triglycerides)

Complex lipids contain?

the element phosphorus (Phospholipids make up the major part of the membrane around living cells)

Lipids that contain rings of carbon atoms?

Steroids (includes cholesterol another component of cell membranes)

What is an enzyme?

proteins that are essential for metabolism(serve as catalysts in reactions that take place within cells) (words that end in
-ase)

Gives off rays of atomic particles?

radioactive isotope

Uses of Radioactive isotopes?

Cancer therapy, diagnosis(tracers,ex-rays)

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