Chapter 8: Bones Part 2: The Appendicular Skeleton

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attaches the upper limbs to the trunk

pectoral girdle

attaches the lower limbs to the trunk

pelvic girdle

Name two characteristics of upper and lower limbs in relation to one another.

1. Differ in function
2. Similar structural plan

What is unique about the pectoral girdle that is different than the pelvic girdle

The pectoral girdle is not like a true girdle that completely surrounds/encircles the body like the pelvic girdle is. This is because it provides more flexibility

extremities more suited for stability

lower

extremeties more suited for flexibility

upper

What two bones makes up the pectoral girdle?

Clavicle and Scapula

Where does the pectoral girdle attach on the clavicle?

medially articulate with the sternum (manubrium) and first rib and laterally joins with the scapulae

What should we know about the scapulae?

They do not join each other or axial skeleton, (only the clavicle articulates with the axial skeleton)

Name two characterisitcs of the pectoral girdle

1. attachment for muscles for upper lim movement
2. It is very light and mobile with a glenoid cavity that is shallow and flat which allows good flexibility, poor stability

What does the acromial calvicular joint articulate with on the pectoral girdle?

Clavicle

Small bone commonly doing a lot therefore it is commonly fractured out or anteriorly

clavicle

Projection on the inferior side of the clavicle

conoid tubercle

What shape does the clavicle take on?

S-shape

Name the four main muscle that attach to the clavicle

1. Pectoralis Major (chest muscle)
2. Trapezius (Back muscle)
3. Sternocleidomastoid (Neck muscle)
4. Deltoid (shoulder muscle)

What two things does the clavicle hold laterally?

scapulae and arms

What direction does the clavicle transmit compression forces?

from upper limbs to the axial skeleton

What is a common way to fracture you clavicle?

Fall with outstretched hands trying to catch yourself and the force comes up through the upper extremity which is not supposed to happen

Where is the scapulae located and between what ribs?

on dorsal suface of rib cage between ribs 2-7

What are the three borders and three angles of the scapulae?

Borders: superior, medial(vetebral) and lateral(axillary)
Angles: Lateral, Superior, inferior

The most anterior part of the scapula

coracoid process

depression

fossa

What do you find in the supraspinous fossa?

Supraspinotus

What do you find in the infraspinous fossa?

Infraspinotus

attachment on the scapula for the biceps

supraglenoid tubercle

attachment on the scapula below the glenoid cavity for the triceps

infraglenoid tubercle

How many bones form each upper limb?

30

What are the group of bones of the arm?

shoulder to the elbow

What are the group of bones of the forearm?

elbow to the wrist

What are the group of bones of the hand?

distal to forearm including wrist, hand and fingers

The only bone of the arm

humerus

What is very important about the humerus?

It is the longest and strongest bone of the upper limb

What does the humerus articulate with proximally and distally?

Proximally: with the glenoid cavity (head) and scapula
Distally: Radius and ulna

projections on the humerus that are places of attachment for several shoulder muscles

great ad lesser tubercle

depression or groove on the humerus

sulcus

sulcus within the tubercles on the humerus

intertubercular sulcus

two common places for fractura on the humerus

anatomical and surgical neck

deltoid muscle attachment on the humerus

deltoid tuberosity

groove on the humerus for the radial nerve that supplies the posterior upper extremity

radial groove

smooth rounded projections helping to form joint on the humerus

condyle

one segment that is the condly that is articulating with the radius (lateral condyle)

capitulum

on the humerus this articulates with the ulna (medial condyle)

trochlea

projections on the humerus above the condyles

epicondyles

where radius fits on the humerus during flexion

radial fossa

during extension, where the olecranon process fits on the humerus

olecranon fossa

true neck

anatomical neck

There are three of these on the humerus and they are used for the ulna to go into during full extension

fossa

What two bones form the forearm

Radius ulna

What are the proximal and distal articulations of the forearm?

Proximal: ends articulate with the humerus
Distal: articulate wth carpals (wrist)

How many time do the ulna and radius articulate with one another and where?

Proximally and Distally 2 times

ligaments that run the entire length of the forearm that interconnect the forearm

interosseous membrane

What is the anatomical position of the radius relative to the ulna

radius is lateral to the ulna

Where is the radial notch found?

ulna

As the elbow goes into flexion, the coranoid process will going into the what to help stabilize the joint?

coranoid fossa

Where does the head of the radius go?

into the radial fossa

The boney part of the elbow that we see in extension

olecranon process

What is the significance of the radial notch

to articulate the radius and ulna together

projections where the biceps attach distally

radial tuberosity

Main bone responsible for forming the elbow joint with the humerus

ulna

The distal end of the unla is separated from the carpals by what?

fibrocartilage

what allows the forearm to flex/extend on arm

hinge joint

the structure of which bone dictates the movemnet we achieve at the elbow (flexion and extension) why?

Ulna because the ulna is bigger on the proximal end located near the elbow joint and the radius is bigger on the distal end forming the wrist joint

On the proximal end of the ulna this fits around the trochlea which is the medial condyle of the humerus

trochlear notch

What are the articulations of the radius proximally and medially

proxially: capitulum
Medially: radial notch of the ulna

this bone contributes heavily to the wrist joint and why?

The radius because the distal radius articulates with the carpal bones and when the radius moves, the hand moves

what forms the wrist joint?

ulnar notch of radius

What three bones are found in the hand?

Carpul (wrist)
Metacarpals (palm)
Phalanges (fingers)

How many bones are found in the carpus and what does it form?

8 marble-sized bones that forms the true wrist (proximal region of the hand)

What shape are the carpus bones and what movements do they have between them?

Short bones that are roughly cuboidal that have gliding movements

What are the four bones in the proximal row of the carpus from lateral to medial?

Scaphoid, lunate, triquetral and pisiform

What are the four bones in the distal row of the carpus from lateral to medial?

Trapezium, trapezoid, capitate and hamate

How many metacarpals do we hand?

5

How are the metacarpals numbered?

from 1-5 starting with the pollex (thumb)

What do the metacarpals articulate with?

Proximally: the distal row of carpal
Distally: the proximal phalanges

How are the phalanges numbered?

from 1-5 starting with the pollex (thumb)

How many phalanges does each finger have? How many does the thumb have?

three: proximal, middle and distal phalange
two: proximal and distal phalange

What does the pelvic girdle attach to?

Lower limbs and spine

What does the pelvic girdle support?

The visceral organs

What helps attach the pelvic girdle to the axial skeleton?

strong ligaments

What is the name for the socket at the hip joint?

Acetabulum

What are the characteristics of the acetabulum?

deep socket allowing more stability and less flexibility
more stable than arm and less freedom of movement than upper limb

what does the acetabulum articulate with?

Head of the femur

What are the three factrs that lead to stability at a joint?

1. muscles
2. ligaments
3. the way the bones shape is or how the two bones that meet fit together

The pelvic girdle consists of what paired bones?

Coxal (hip) bones

How do the coxal bones come together? and by what structure?

unite anteriorly by the pubic symphysis which is a specific type of joint

How does the pelvic girdle articulate and what does it articulate with?

posteriorly to the base of the sacrum

a deep, basin-like structure that is formed by the coxal bones, sacrum and coccyx

bony pelvis

What three separate bones form the coxal bone?

illium, ishium and pubis

This bone is a large and flaring that forms the superior region of the coxal bone

Ilium

Articulation of the ilium with the sacrum forms which joint?

sacroiliac joint

What three bones contribute to the acetabulum?

ilium, ishium and pubis

This coxal bone is the place for most muscle attachment

ilium

This bones forms the posterioinferior region of the coxal bone

ishium

These are the strongest part of the hip bone (bones we sit on that are palpated through the gluts)

ischial tuberosities

This boens form the anterior region of the coxal bones

pubis

The two pubic bones are joined by this fibrocartilage at the midline

pubic symphysis

The pelvic is rotated somewhat is which direction?

Anteriorly

How are the pubi bones positioned anatomically?

Horizontally

Where is the pubic tubercle?

Anterior, inferior side of the coxal bone

What does a muscle do to a bone during contraction?

Exerts a force

What are the two regions of the bony pelvis?

true(lesser) and false(greater)

This region of the pelvis is bounded by alae of the iliac bone and is bigger

False (greater)

This region of the pelvis is inferior to the pelvic brim, forms a bowl containing the pelvic organs and is smaller

True (Lesser)

What are the two main differences between a male and female pelvis?

1. Pelvis is lighter, wider (acetabulum farther apart) and shallower
2. Provides more room in the true pelvis for childbirth

What is the coccyx like in a female pelvis?

More moveable for childbirth

What are the three segmnts of the lower limb?

Thigh, leg and foot

What does the thigh segment consist of?

hip to the knee

What does the leg segment consist of?

knee to the ankle

What does the foot segment consist of?

ankle, foot and toes

The single bone of the thigh

femur

the longest and strongest bone of the body

femur

How does the femur articulate with the acetabulum?

the ball-shaped head fits into the deep socket

Describe the saying "broke a hip" relating to osteoporosis

breaking the proximal end of the femur

Three projections on the femur for muscles to attach

trochanter, tuberosity and aspera

smooth rounded projections that articulate specifically with the tibia

medial and later condyle

projections that the abductor muscles of the thigh attach to

abductor tubercle

This bone is a triangular sesamoid bone imbedde in tendon of the quadriceps muscles

patella

bone that is imbedded within a tendon

sesamoid bone

structure that connects muscle to bone

tendon

this bone has a mechanical mechanism that improves leverage of the thigh muscles across the knee

patella

What two bones compose the leg

tibia and fibula

This bone of the leg is more massive, positioned medially and recieves the weight of the body from the femur

tibia

This bone of the leg is less massive, positional lateral and has little if any weight transmitted through it

Fibula

This connects the tibia and fibula

interosseous membrane

What three bones form the knee joint?

Patella, femur and tibia

This bone articulate with the femur at the proximl end forming the knee joint

Tibia

This bone articulate with the talus at the distal end forming the ankle joint

Tibia

This bone does not contribute to the knee joint but stabilizes it

Fibula

Lateral ankle bone on the distal end of the fibula

lateral malleolus

medial ankle bone

medial malleolus

Where is the tibular-fibular joint found?

Both proximally and distally

What three bones compose the foot?

tarsus, metatarsus and phalanges

What are three important functions of the foot

1. supports body weight
2. acts as a lever to propel body forward when walking
3. segmentation makes foot pliable and adapted to uneven ground

How many bones are in the tarsus?

7

What half of the foot does the tarsus make up?

the posterior half

Which part of the foot is in contact with the ground and through which weight is transmitted through

Calcaneus

How many bones are in the metatarsus?

5 small, long bones

How are the bones of the metatarsus numbered?

1-5 beginning with the hallux

What is significant about the big toe (hallux)

Support the body weight

How many bones are in the phalanges of the toes?

14

Why are the phalanges of the toes much smaller and less numbler than those of the fingers?

We are adapted to doing so many things with our hands therefore our toes are smaller. However, if we were to practice writing with our toes or doing things like we do with our hands we would be able to eventually accomplish almost all of the same things with both fingers and toes.

How manay phalanges do the toes have? what about the big toe?

three: proximal, middle and distal
two: proximal and distal

This bone of the foot is the talar shelf

sustentaculum tali

These projections on the foot are made for attachments

calcaneal tuberosity

What are the three important arches of the foot?

Medial longitudinal arch, lateral longitudinal arch and transverse arch

Name two things that arches are maintained by

1. interlocking shapes of tarsals
2. ligaments and tendons

What are three disorders of the appendicular skeleton?

Bone fractures, hips dysplasia and club foot

This disorder is when the head of the femur slips out of the acetabulum

hip dysplasia

This disorder is when the soles of the feet turn medially

Clubfoot

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