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Mazzini

An Italian Nationalist and Journalist who was influenced by Mickiewicz's vision of a unified Poland. (He applied the concept to Italy.) Exiled in 1831, for his opposition to Austrian rule in Northern Italy, he created a secret society called Young Italy. However, he lacked both European allies and widespread support among the Italian people.

Karl Marx

German philosopher, economist, and revolutionary. With the help and support of Friedrich Engels he wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848). It forms the basis of all communist theory, and has had a profound influence on the social sciences. Helped found the Communist League and embraced industrialization because he believed it would eventually bring about the working class revolution and lead to the abolition of exploitation, private property, and "class society."

Engels

Son of a wealthy cotton manufacturer who wrote "The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844" after being shocked by their lives while working in his families factory offices in Manchester. Co-wrote The Communist Manifesto with Karl Marx. Helped found the Communist League and embraced industrialization because he believed it would eventually bring about the working class revolution and lead to the abolition of exploitation, private property, and "class society."

Young Italy

A secret society formed by Giuseppe Mazzini. It attracted thousands with its message that Italy would touch off a European-wide revolutionary movement.

Young Ireland

Founded by young writers in 1842, this was a movement that aimed to recover Irish History and preserve the Gaelic Language. Hoped for the repeal of the Act of Union.

Zollverein

Founded in 1834 under Prussian leadership. A German customs union founded to increase trade and stimulate revenues of its members; tariff-free zone in Germany, in order to boost German economy in a step toward political unity.

Corn Laws

Laws in Britain that benefited landowners by preventing the import of cheap foreign grain by way of an expensive tariff.

Communism

A form of socialism created by Marx and Engels that basically called for the rise of the working class to overthrow the middle class and establish a society with no private property and no more social classes.

Chartism

The movement of supporters of the People's Charter (drawn up in Britian in 1838), which sought to transform Britain into a democracy and demanded universal suffrage for men, vote by secret ballot, equal electoral districts, annual elections, and the elimination of property qualifications for and the payment of stipends to members of Parliament.

Act of Union 1801

Know Date The law that made Ireland part of Great Britain. Pressured for repeal in the 1840's but did not happen.

Repeal of the Corn Laws 1846

Know Date Approved by the Middle Class who hated the "blood-sucking vampire" landowning class and who wanted to lower bread prices in order to pay their workers less. Working class people just wanted bread prices to be lower. Occurred during the government of prime minister Sir Robert Peel.

Communist Manifesto 1848

Know Date Printed in the name of the Communist League, this became the touchstone of Marxist and communist revolution all over the world. Declared that communists must aim for "the downfall of the bourgeoisie and the ascendancy of the working class, the abolition of the old society based on class conflicts and the foundation of a new society without classes and without private property.

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