attack on one's opponent, rather than the opponent's argument
a logical fallacy that involves an irrelevant or highly exaggerated appeal to pity, misery, or sympathy.
rhetorical term for an abrupt decline from a serious or noble tone to a trivial or ludicrous one; comedown; bathos
any persuasive strategy, especially one directed to the emotions, sense of humor, or cherished beliefs of an audience
appeal to logic. appeal to facts and reasoning.
appeal to emotions (through use of slogans, personal stories, interviews)
appeal to character and credibility of the speaker. (by use of credible, reliable sources or by showing counterargument).
Begging the Question
fallacy in which the claim is included in the evidence so nothing is proved (in this sense, the word beg means "to avoid", not "ask" or "lead to". it is also known as circular argument.)
"empty rhetoric" or "a windy grandeur of language".
an argument that commits the logical fallacy of assuming what is attempting to prove. (also known as begging the question)
mounting by degrees through words or sentences of increasing weight and in parallel construction, with emphasis on the high point or culmination of an experience or series of events. arrangement of clauses in ascending order of forcefulness.
word (such as this, that, these, those, now, then, I, here, and him) that points to the time, place, or situation in which the speaker is speaking.
substitution of an inoffensive term (such as "passed away") for one that is considered offensively explicit ("died")
statement of what a person said, without quoting the exact words (Ex.: She said she could not go.)
error in reasoning that renders an argument invalid
compact expression of a general truth or rule of conduct
one word is replaced by associated word (such as "crown" for "royalty", or "White House" for "president") rhetorical strategy of describing something indirectly by referring to things around it
a one-word name (such as "Oprah", "Bono", or "Beck") by which a person or thing is known
fallacy that uses emotionally loaded terms to influence an audience. making accusations about a person without addressing the person's actual argument.
presentation of evidence and reasoning meant to weaken an opponent's claim
when an author changes the subject to draw attention away from the real issue
quick, witty reply or an exchange of witty remarks
an examination of how well the components of an argument work to persuade or move an audience; form of criticism (or close reading) that employs the principles of rhetoric to examine the interactions between a text, an author, and an audience
Stacking the Deck (Slanting)
fallacy in which one side of an argument is completely ignored
describing one kind of sensation in terms of another ("a quiet color", "a bright sound"); a synthesis of senses; a sensory mismatch
presence of two or more possible meanings within a single sentence or sequence of words
presence of two or more possible meanings within a single word
arrangement of words in a sentence; manner in which words are joined to make phrases, clauses, and sentences
subjective, reflective poetry with regular rhyme scheme and meter which reveals the poet's thoughts and feelings to create a single, unique impression.
nondramatic, objective verse with regular rhyme scheme and meter which relates a story or narrative.
rigid 14-line verse form, with variable structure and rhyme scheme according to type
elaborate lyric verse which deals seriously with a dignified theme
unrhymed lines of iambic pentameter
unrhymed lines without regular rhythm
long, dignified narrative poem which gives the account of a hero important to his nation or race
simple, narrative verse which tells a story to be sung or recited (the folk ballad is anonymously handed down, while the literary ballad has a single author)
poetry's rhythm, or pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables
unstressed + stressed syllables
stressed + unstressed syllables
2 line stanzas
3 line stanzas
4 line stanzas
5 line stanzas
6 line stanzas
7 line stanzas
8 line stanzas
pause in the meter or rhythm of a line ("a cutting")
a run-on line continuing into the next without grammatical break
rhyme occurring at the ends of verse lines; most common rhyme form
rhyme contained within a line of verse
pattern of rhymes with a unit of verse; in analysis, each end rhyme-sound is represented by a letter
repetition of two or more vowel sounds within a line
repetition of two or more consonant sounds within a line
repetition of one or more initial sounds, usually consonants, in words within a line.
use of word whose sound suggests its meaning
figure of speech which makes direct comparison of two unlike objects by identification or substitution
direct comparison of two unlike objects, using like or as.
figure of speech in which objects and animals have human qualities
figure of speech in which a part represents the whole object or idea
gross exaggeration for effect: overstatement
contrast between actual meaning and the suggestion of another meaning
use of one object to suggest another, hidden object or idea
use of words to represent things, actions, or ideas by sensory description
statement which appears self-contradictory, but underlines a basis of truth
contradictory terms brought together to express a paradox for strong effect
reference to outside fact, event, or other source.