2 chromosomes exchange pieces of chromsomes. (happens during prophase)
a cell with n chromosomes
a cell that contains 2n chromosomes
the chromosomes that make up a pair, one chromosome from each parent.
a kind of cell division that reduces the number of chromosomes by half through the separation of homologous chromosomes. (takes place in reproductive organs ONLY)
cells that reproduce through mitosis instead of meiosis.
sex cells with half the number of chromosomes that ensure that the chromosome number stays the same.
an alternative form of a single gene passed from generation to generation.
the visible characteristics of an organism/object (round and yellow)
the whole set of genes of an individual or group (HhRR)
having at least one gene pair that contains identical genes (HH)
having at least one gene pair that contains different genes (Hh)
occurs when both alleles contribute towards the phenotype (domino chicken)
not all traits are dominant (Rr=pink)
genes that have more than 2 alleles (human blood groups: A, B and O)
A trait that is controlled by several genes
any chromosome other than a sex chromosome.
an ancestral line; line of descent; lineage; ancestry.
the chromosomes of a cell, usually displayed as a systematized arrangement of chromosome pairs in descending order of size.
having a chromosome number that is more than double the basic or haploid number.
a plant, bacterium, animal, or other organism that has had a foreign gene added to it by
the development and application of scientific methods, procedures, and technologies that permit direct manipulation of genetic material in order to alter the hereditary traits of a cell, organism, or population.
1. (of a gene) located in a sex chromosome.
2. (of a character) determined by a gene located in a sex chromosome.
. Also called: gene clone a segment of DNA that has been isolated and replicated by laboratory manipulation: used to analyse genes and manufacture their products (proteins)
chromosomal abnormality consisting of the absence of one chromosome from the normal diploid number
an abnormality characterized by the presence of an additional chromosome to the normal diploid number.
the failure of chromosomes to separate and segregate into daughter cells at division.
Austrian botanist and founder of the science of genetics. He discovered Mendel's laws.
law of segregation
when gametes are formed, alleles separate and pass into DIFFERENT gametes.
law of independent assortment
different traits are passed independently (no two traits HAVE to go together)
an association between two or more genes on a chromosome that tends to cause the characteristics determined by these genes to be inherited as an inseparable unit.