The Russian psychologist Vygotsky suggested that children's ability to solve problems is enhanced by
A) basic trust.
B) interaction with the social environment
According to Piaget, a person first comprehends that division is the reverse of multiplication during the ________ stage.
B) concrete operational
C) formal operational
According to Piaget, egocentrism refers to
A) a sensorimotor need for self-stimulation, as evidenced in thumb sucking.
B) young children's exaggerated interest in themselves and their own pleasure.
C) the difficulty perceiving things from another person's point of view.
D) the difficulty realizing that things continue to exist even when they are not visible
Compared with fraternal twins, identical twins are much more similar in
D) all of these: extraversion, neuroticism, temperament
By decreasing REM sleep, alcohol consumption disrupts the processing of recent experiences into long-term memory. This disruption occurs because REM sleep
A) helps fix the day's experiences into permanent memories.
B) triggers the release of melatonin.
C) enhances metabolic and hormonal functioning.
D) relaxes muscles while other body systems are active.
aD) all of these: extraversion, neuroticism, temperament
bC) the difficulty perceiving things from another person's point of view
cB) concrete operational
dB) interaction with the social environment
eA) helps fix the day's experiences into permanent memories.
5 Multiple Choice Questions
A) more; more
D) stranger anxiety.
D) sleep patterns may be genetically influenced.
5 True/False Questions
Unlike ducklings, children do not imprint. Their fondness for certain people, however, is fostered by
C) mere exposure.
D) infantile amnesia. → C) mere exposure.
At 1:00 A.M., Luis gets out of bed and begins to sleepwalk. An EEG of his brain activity is most likely to indicate the presence of
A) alpha waves.
B) sleep spindles.
C) REM sleep.
D) delta waves. → B) Ecstasy.
Difficult babies with an intense and highly reactive temperament tend to be
A) intelligent and imaginative.
B) irritable and unpredictable.
C) fearless and assertive.
D) extraverted and cheerful. → B) irritable and unpredictable.
Infants develop a fear of strangers at about 8 months of age because they can't assimilate unfamiliar faces into their
C) theory of mind.
D) self-concept. → B) alpha waves
Dmitry Belyaev and Lyudmila Trut successfully domesticated wild foxes by means of
B) selective mating.
C) gene splicing.
D) hormone injections. → D) personality traits.