Test 2 Psychology

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Consciousness is
A) the ability to solve problems, reason, and remember.
B) the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information.
C) effortless encoding of incidental information into memory.
D) our awareness of ourselves and our environment.

D) our awareness of ourselves and our environment

Which specialty area would be most interested in identifying the cortical activation patterns associated with a person's perception of different objects?
A) evolutionary psychology
B) cognitive neuroscience
C) behavior genetics
D) behaviorism

B) cognitive neuroscience

The simultaneous processing of information at both conscious and unconscious levels is called
A) the cocktail party effect.
B) the pop-out phenomenon.
C) dual processing.
D) selective attention.

C) dual processing.

Compared with unconscious information processing, conscious information processing is relatively
A) fast and especially effective for solving new problems.
B) slow and especially effective for solving new problems.
C) fast and especially effective for solving routine problems.
D) slow and especially effective for solving routine problems.

B) slow and especially effective for solving new problems.

Our inability to consciously process all the sensory information available to us at any single point in time best illustrates the necessity of
A) explicit memory.
B) selective attention.
C) implicit memory.
D) change blindness.

B) selective attention

The cocktail party effect provides an example of
A) choice blindness.
B) serial processing.
C) selective attention.
D) explicit memory.

C) selective attention.

One naturalistic observation of pedestrians found that half of the people on cellphones exhibit unsafe road crossing. This illustrates the impact of
A) the pop-out phenomenon.
B) selective attention.
C) priming.
D) choice blindness.

B) selective attention

In one experiment, most of the participants who viewed a videotape of men tossing a basketball remained unaware of an umbrella-toting woman sauntering across the screen. This illustrated
A) a visual perception track.
B) inattentional blindness.
C) priming.
D) serial processing.

B) inattentional blindness

While a man provided directions to a construction worker, two experimenters rudely interrupted by passing between them carrying a door. The student's failure to notice that the construction worker was replaced by a different person during this interruption illustrates
A) the pop-out phenomenon.
B) a visual action track.
C) implicit memory.
D) change blindness.

D) change blindness

Circadian rhythm refers to
A) the pattern of emotional ups and downs we routinely experience.
B) a pattern of biological functioning that occurs on a roughly 24-hour cycle.
C) the experience of sleep apnea following an extensive transoceanic flight.
D) the cycle of five distinct stages that we experience during a normal night's sleep.

B) a pattern of biological functioning that occurs on a roughly 24-hour cycle.

The circadian rhythm is influenced by light-sensitive retinal proteins that trigger signals to the
A) suprachiasmatic nucleus.
B) amygdala.
C) thyroid gland.
D) sleep spindles.

A) suprachiasmatic nucleus.

Jordanna has decided to go to bed early. Although her eyes are closed and she's very relaxed, she has not yet fallen asleep. An electroencephalograph is most likely to indicate the presence of
A) delta waves.
B) alpha waves.
C) sleep spindles.
D) rapid eye movements.

B) alpha waves

Hypnagogic sensations are most closely associated with ________ sleep.

A) Stage 1

The rhythmic bursts of brain activity that occur during Stage 2 sleep are called
A) alpha waves.
B) circadian rhythms.
C) sleep spindles.
D) delta waves.

C) sleep spindles

Bed-wetting is most likely to occur at the end of ________ sleep.
A) Stage 1
B) Stage 2
C) slow-wave
D) paradoxical

C) slow-wave

At 1:00 A.M., Luis gets out of bed and begins to sleepwalk. An EEG of his brain activity is most likely to indicate the presence of
A) alpha waves.
B) sleep spindles.
C) REM sleep.
D) delta waves.

D) delta waves

You spend about half your night in stage __ sleep.
A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 4

B) 2

At 3 o'clock in the morning, John has already slept for 4 hours. As long as his sleep continues, we can expect an increasing occurrence of
A) hypnagogic sensations.
B) muscle tension.
C) REM sleep.
D) Stage 4 sleep.

C) REM sleep

The brain waves associated with REM sleep are most similar to those of
A) Stage 1 sleep.
B) Stage 2 sleep.
C) Stage 3 sleep.
D) Stage 4 sleep.

A) Stage 1 sleep

REM sleep is called paradoxical sleep because
A) our heart rate is slow and steady, while our breathing is highly irregular.
B) we are deeply asleep but can be awakened easily.
C) our nervous system is highly active, while our voluntary muscles hardly move.
D) it leads to highly imaginative dreams that are perceived as colorless images.
C) our nervous system is highly active, while our voluntary muscles hardly move.

C) our nervous system is highly active, while our voluntary muscles hardly move.

Forty-year-old Lance insists that he never dreams. Research suggests that he probably
A) would report a vivid dream if he were awakened during REM sleep.
B) dreams during Stage 4 rather than during REM sleep.
C) experiences more Stage 4 sleep than most people.
D) passes through the sleep cycle much more rapidly than most people.

A) would report a vivid dream if he were awakened during REM sleep.

The human sleep cycle repeats itself about every
A) 30 minutes.
B) 90 minutes.
C) 2 1/2 hours.
D) 4 hours.

B) 90 minutes

Research on sleep patterns indicates that
A) older adults and newborns have very similar sleep patterns.
B) different sleep patterns reflect differences in latent dream content.
C) everyone needs a minimum of 8 hours of sleep per night to function well.
D) sleep patterns may be genetically influenced.

D) sleep patterns may be genetically influenced.

Chronic sleep deprivation is likely to
A) promote obesity and facilitate memory.
B) inhibit obesity and impair memory.
C) promote obesity and impair memory.
D) inhibit obesity and facilitate memory.

C) promote obesity and impair memory.

Sleep deprivation ________ the production of body fat by ________ levels of the stress hormone cortisol.
A) stimulates; increasing
B) inhibits; increasing
C) stimulates; decreasing
D) inhibits; decreasing

A) stimulates; increasing

Psychoactive drugs influence neurotransmission by stimulating, mimicking, or ________ the activity of neurotransmitters.
A) synthesizing
B) inhibiting
C) enhancing
D) serially processing

B) inhibiting

Under the influence of alcohol, angered people are ________ likely to be aggressive than they would otherwise be and restaurant patrons are ________ likely to tip generously than they otherwise would.
A) more; more
B) less; less
C) more; less
D) less; more

A) more; more

By decreasing REM sleep, alcohol consumption disrupts the processing of recent experiences into long-term memory. This disruption occurs because REM sleep
A) helps fix the day's experiences into permanent memories.
B) triggers the release of melatonin.
C) enhances metabolic and hormonal functioning.
D) relaxes muscles while other body systems are active.

A) helps fix the day's experiences into permanent memories.

Alcohol consumption tends to
A) decrease self-awareness and increase impulse control.
B) increase self-awareness and decrease impulse control.
C) increase self-awareness and increase impulse control.
D) decrease self-awareness and decrease impulse control.

D) decrease self-awareness and decrease impulse control.

Which drugs are most likely to be prescribed as tranquilizers?
A) amphetamines
B) barbiturates
C) hallucinogens
D) opiates

B) barbiturates

The use of barbiturates ________ anxiety and ________ nervous system activity.
A) increases; decreases
B) decreases; increases
C) decreases; decreases
D) increases; increases

C) decreases; decreases

Repeated use of an opiate
A) decreases the brain's production of endorphins.
B) increases heart and breathing rates.
C) is not associated with any serious withdrawal symptoms.
D) triggers auditory as well as visual hallucinations.

A) decreases the brain's production of endorphins.

Amphetamines are to ________ as barbiturates are to ________.
A) hallucinogens; depressants
B) stimulants; depressants
C) hallucinogens; stimulants
D) stimulants; hallucinogens

B) stimulants; depressants

François was dismayed to discover that some of his football teammates were using drugs to enhance their footwork and endurance on the playing field. Which of the following drugs were the players most likely using?
A) morphine derivatives
B) marijuana
C) amphetamines
D) barbiturates

C) amphetamines

Amphetamines ________ appetite and ________ self-confidence.
A) decrease; increase
B) increase; decrease
C) increase; increase
D) decrease; decrease

A) decrease; increase

When cocaine is injected or smoked, it produces a rush of euphoria that lasts 15 to 30 minutes. But the stimulant drug ________ can trigger eight hours or so of heightened energy and euphoria.
A) LSD
B) heroin
C) Amytal
D) methamphetamine "speed"

D) methamphetamine "speed"

Young teens are most likely to start smoking in order to
A) gain social acceptance.
B) trigger the release of lymphocytes.
C) reduce their mental alertness.
D) reduce their blood pressure.

A) gain social acceptance.

By triggering the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine, ________ boosts alertness and diminishes appetite.
A) alcohol
B) heroin
C) nicotine
D) ghrelin

C) nicotine

A rewarding consequence of cigarette smoking is that it reduces
A) blood pressure and heart rate.
B) sensitivity to pain.
C) mental alertness.
D) the release of epinephrine into the bloodstream.

B) sensitivity to pain

Soon after taking a psychoactive drug, Zachary experienced a diminished appetite, an increased pulse rate, dilated pupils, and feelings of self-confidence and euphoria. Zachary most likely experienced the effects of
A) heroin.
B) cocaine.
C) LSD.
D) marijuana.

B) cocaine.

One of the dangers of using Ecstasy at all-night dances is
A) increased appetite.
B) dehydration.
C) lethargy.
D) pupil constriction.

B) dehydration

The release of stored serotonin and the eventual damage of serotonin-producing neurons is most closely associated with the long-term use of
A) alcohol.
B) Ecstasy.
C) morphine.
D) barbiturates.

B) Ecstasy.

THC, the active ingredient in ________, is classified as a ________.
A) marijuana; hallucinogen
B) marijuana; stimulant
C) cocaine; stimulant
D) cocaine; hallucinogen

A) marijuana; hallucinogen

Boys who tend to be fearless and impulsive at age 6 are
A) less likely to smoke and more likely to drink alcohol as teens.
B) more likely to smoke and less likely to drink alcohol as teens.
C) less likely to smoke and less likely to drink alcohol as teens.
D) more likely to smoke and more likely to drink alcohol as teens.

D) more likely to smoke and more likely to drink alcohol as teens.

One biological basis for addiction involves deficiencies in the brain's natural ________ reward system.
A) sensory
B) dopamine
C) motor
D) melatonin

B) dopamine

At about eight months of age, people across the world start to ________ strangers; as adults, they prefer the company of those whose attributes are ________ to their own.
A) fear; similar
B) enjoy; different
C) fear; different
D) enjoy; similar

A) fear; similar

Every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us, in an aspect of our
A) temperament.
B) genome.
C) environment.
D) natural selection.

C) environment.

The impact of our cultural backgrounds on the development of our personal values best illustrates the influence of
A) temperament.
B) heritability.
C) mutations.
D) the environment.

D) the environment.

The study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior and personality traits is known as
A) molecular genetics.
B) evolutionary psychology.
C) behavior genetics.
D) heritability.

C) behavior genetics.

A behavior geneticist would be most interested in studying hereditary influences on
A) skin color.
B) speech patterns
C) physical attractiveness.
D) personality traits.

D) personality traits.

DNA is a complex
A) sex hormone.
B) genome.
C) molecule.
D) synapse.

C) molecule

The biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes are called
A) genes.
B) sperm.
C) ova.
D) neurotransmitters.

A) genes.

Depending on environmental conditions, specific genes can be either
A) proteins or chemicals.
B) active or inactive.
C) identical or fraternal.
D) structured or unstructured.

B) active or inactive.

The genome is the complete
A) collection of sexual characteristics regulated by the X and Y chromosomes.
B) range of traits that contribute to reproductive success.
C) set of genetic material in an organism's chromosomes.
D) set of interactions between genes and environments.

C) set of genetic material in an organism's chromosomes.

Twin studies suggest that Alzheimer's disease is influenced by
A) fertility.
B) gender.
C) heredity.
D) mutations.

C) heredity

Compared with identical twins, fraternal twins are ________ similar in neuroticism and ________ similar in risk of divorcing.
A) more; less
B) less; more
C) more; more
D) less; less

D) less; less

Compared with fraternal twins, identical twins are much more similar in
A) extraversion.
B) neuroticism.
C) temperament.
D) all of these: extraversion, neuroticism, temperament

D) all of these: extraversion, neuroticism, temperament

Environmental influences on personality traits are most clearly highlighted by comparing
A) identical twins raised apart with fraternal twins raised apart.
B) identical twins raised together with fraternal twins raised together.
C) identical twins raised apart with fraternal twins raised together.
D) identical twins raised together with identical twins raised apart.

D) identical twins raised together with identical twins raised apart

Although identical twins have been shown to have some amazing psychological similarities, one should be cautious about attributing these similarities to genetic factors because
A) the twins may have been raised in completely different environments.
B) genetic factors influence physical, not psychological, characteristics.
C) any two strangers are likely to share a string of coincidental similarities.
D) many fraternal twins have been shown to be psychologically different from each other.

C) any two strangers are likely to share a string of coincidental similarities.

The personalities of adopted children
A) are very similar to the personalities of the other children in their adoptive families.
B) are very similar to the personalities of their biologically related siblings.
C) are not very similar to the personalities of their adoptive parents.
D) are more similar to the personalities of their caregiving adoptive parents than to the personalities of their biological parents.

C) are not very similar to the personalities of their adoptive parents.

Research most clearly suggests that personality traits are more strongly influenced by
A) genes than by home environment.
B) home environment than by genes.
C) genes than by peers.
D) home environment than by peers.

D) home environment than by peers.

The home environment most clearly has a greater influence on children's ________ than on their ________.
A) temperament; political attitudes
B) extraversion; table manners
C) religious beliefs; personality traits
D) gender identity; gender schemas

C) religious beliefs; personality traits

The labels "easy," "difficult," and "slow-to-warm-up" are used to refer to differences in an infant's
A) genome.
B) fitness.
C) temperament.
D) adaptability

C) temperament.

Difficult babies with an intense and highly reactive temperament tend to be
A) intelligent and imaginative.
B) irritable and unpredictable.
C) fearless and assertive.
D) extraverted and cheerful.

B) irritable and unpredictable.

Heritability refers to the extent to which
A) unrelated individuals share common genes.
B) genetic mutations can be transmitted to one's offspring.
C) trait differences among individuals are attributable to genetic variations.
D) adult personality is determined by infant temperament.

C) trait differences among individuals are attributable to genetic variations

An African butterfly that is green in the summer turns brown in the fall thanks to a temperature-controlled genetic switch. This best illustrates that genes are
A) mutations.
B) self-regulating.
C) interactive.
D) protein molecules.

B) self-regulating

People have always responded so positively to Alyssa's good looks that she has developed a socially confident and outgoing personality. This best illustrates
A) the impact of temperament on gender identity.
B) that gender schemas and social roles are complementary.
C) the interaction of nature and nurture.
D) the reciprocal influence of norms and roles.

C) the interaction of nature and nurture.

Assessing possible links between specific chromosome segments and alcohol dependence would be of greatest interest to a(n)
A) evolutionary psychologist.
B) molecular geneticist.
C) behaviorist.
D) social learning theoris

B) molecular geneticist.

Dmitry Belyaev and Lyudmila Trut successfully domesticated wild foxes by means of
A) heritability.
B) selective mating.
C) gene splicing.
D) hormone injections.

B) selective mating.

From ages 3 to 6, the brain's neural networks are sprouting most rapidly in the
A) frontal lobes.
B) hypothalamus.
C) cerebellum.
D) brainstem.

A) frontal lobes.

When Tommy's mother hides his favorite toy under a blanket, he acts as though it no longer exists and makes no attempt to retrieve it. Tommy is clearly near the beginning of Piaget's ________ stage.
A) sensorimotor
B) formal operational
C) concrete operational
D) preoperational

A) sensorimotor

After 4-month-olds habituated to an image of a cube, they stared longer when shown
A) a smaller rather than a larger version of the cube.
B) a larger rather than a smaller version of the cube.
C) a possible rather than an impossible version of the cube.
D) an impossible rather than a possible version of the cube.

D) an impossible rather than a possible version of the cube.

When researcher Karen Wynn showed 5-month-old infants a numerically impossible outcome, the infants
A) stared longer at the outcome.
B) displayed rapid imprinting.
C) demonstrated an obvious lack of object permanence.
D) showed signs of formal operational reasoning.

A) stared longer at the outcome.

If children cannot grasp the principle of conservation, they are unable to
A) deal with the discipline of toilet training.
B) see things from the point of view of another person.
C) recognize that the quantity of a substance remains the same despite changes in its shape.
D) retain earlier schemas when confronted by new experiences.

C) recognize that the quantity of a substance remains the same despite changes in its shape

Mrs. Pearson cut Judy's hot dog into eight pieces and Sylvia's into six pieces. Sylvia cried because she felt she wasn't getting as much hot dog as Judy. Piaget would say that Sylvia doesn't understand the principle of
A) object permanence.
B) conservation.
C) egocentrism.
D) accommodation

B) conservation.

According to Piaget, egocentrism refers to
A) a sensorimotor need for self-stimulation, as evidenced in thumb sucking.
B) young children's exaggerated interest in themselves and their own pleasure.
C) the difficulty perceiving things from another person's point of view.
D) the difficulty realizing that things continue to exist even when they are not visible

C) the difficulty perceiving things from another person's point of view

Five-year-olds who were surprised to discover that a Band-Aids box contained pencils were able to anticipate their friend's false belief about the contents of the box. This best illustrates that the children had developed a
A) secure attachment.
B) sense of object permanence.
C) theory of mind.
D) concept of conservation.

C) theory of mind.

An impaired theory of mind is most closely associated with
A) the concept of conservation.
B) concrete operational thought.
C) infantile amnesia.
D) autism.

D) autism.

One variation in the autism spectrum is characterized by normal intelligence, often accompanied by exceptional skill in a particular area, but deficient social and communication skills. This disorder is called
A) egocentrism.
B) infantile amnesia.
C) Alzheimer's disease.
D) Asperger syndrome

D) Asperger syndrome

Psychologist Simon Baron-Cohen has proposed that autism is indicative of an inborn
A) stranger anxiety.
B) resilience.
C) infantile amnesia.
D) male systemizing tendency.

D) male systemizing tendency.

When people with autism watch another person's hand movements, they display less ________ than most others.
A) habituation
B) egocentrism
C) mirror neuron activity
D) stranger anxiety

C) mirror neuron activity

The Russian psychologist Vygotsky suggested that children's ability to solve problems is enhanced by
A) basic trust.
B) interaction with the social environment
C) conservation.
D) imprinting.

B) interaction with the social environment

According to Piaget, a person first comprehends that division is the reverse of multiplication during the ________ stage.
A) preoperational
B) concrete operational
C) formal operational
D) sensorimotor

B) concrete operational

At about 8 months, children become increasingly likely to react to newcomers with tears and distress. This best illustrates
A) assimilation.
B) insecure attachment.
C) egocentrism.
D) stranger anxiety.

D) stranger anxiety.

Infants develop a fear of strangers at about 8 months of age because they can't assimilate unfamiliar faces into their
A) schemas.
B) attachments.
C) theory of mind.
D) self-concept.

A) schemas

The powerful survival impulse that leads infants to seek closeness to their caregivers is called
A) attachment.
B) habituation.
C) assimilation.
D) conservation.

A) attachment.

Studies of monkeys raised with artificial mothers suggest that mother-infant emotional bonds result primarily from mothers providing infants with
A) adequate nourishment.
B) body contact.
C) the opportunity to explore.
D) self-esteem.

B) body contact

Which of the following is an example of imprinting?
A) A 2-year-old poodle approaches a stranger who calls it.
B) A 4-year-old boy imitates aggression he sees on television.
C) A duckling demonstrates attachment to a bouncing ball.
D) A 3-year-old girl is simultaneously learning two different languages

C) A duckling demonstrates attachment to a bouncing ball.

Unlike ducklings, children do not imprint. Their fondness for certain people, however, is fostered by
A) conservation.
B) egocentrism.
C) mere exposure.
D) infantile amnesia.

C) mere exposure.

Hypnosis involves a state of
A) increased physical stamina.
B) heightened openness to suggestion. C) improved perceptual skills.
D) elevated autonomic arousal

B) heightened openness to suggestion.

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