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Which of the following is a characteristic of the electron transport chain (ETC)?

The final electron acceptor in the ETC is water.
The ETC occurs in the mitochondria.
NADH is a product of the ETC.
The electron transport chain is an anaerobic pathway

The ETC occurs in the mitochondria.

What is the primary function of cell respiration?

The main function of cellular respiration is to break down molecules and generate ATP.

Most ATP in cellular respiration is generated in glycolsis.

...

Vitamins

A, D, E & K are fat-soluable; C & B are water soluable

Which nutrients function as coenzymes and are needed in only small amounts?

Vitamins

In cellular respiration, energy-depleted electrons are donated to an inorganic molecule. In fermentation, what molecule accepts these electrons?

an organic molecule

Which of the following is not a stage of aerobic respiration?
a). glycolysis
b). pyruvate oxidation
c). the Krebs cycle
d). electron transport chain

a). glycolysis

Which steps in glycolysis require the input of energy?
a). the glucose priming steps
b). the phosphorylation of glucose
c). the phosphorylation of fructose 6-phosphate
d). All of these steps require the input of energy.

All of these steps require the input of energy.

Pyruvate dehydrogenase is a multienzyme complex that catalyzes a series of reactions. Which of the following is not carried out by pyruvate dehydrogenase?
a). a decarboxylation reaction
b). the production of ATP
c). producing an acetyl group from pyruvate
d). combining the acetyl group with a cofactor

b). the production of ATP

Which nutrient molecule is the pivotal fuel molecule in the oxidative pathways?

a. glucose
b. cholesterol
c. protein
d. fat

a. Glucose--Most cells will use glucose for energy generation when it is available before they will use other molecules. When glucose is absent, proteins and fat can be used but these are secondary energy sources.

Which term describes the breakdown of stored fats into glycerol and fatty acids?

lipolysis

Which nutrients are the most important anabolic nutrients?

amino acids

Which brain region is the main integrating center for thermoregulation?

Hypothalamus

What is the body's major metabolic hormone?

Thyroid Hormone; thyroxine

What is the most essential role of the liver?

Protein metabolism

How many molecules of CO2 are produced for each molecule of glucose that passes through glycolysis and the Krebs cycle?
a). 2
b). 3
c). 6
d). 7

6

The electrons generated from the Krebs cycle are transferred to ____________ and then are shuttled to _______________.
a). NAD+ / oxygen
b). NAD+ / electron transport chain
c). NADH / oxygen
d). NADH / electron transport chain

b). NAD+ / electron transport chain

The electron transport chain pumps protons
a). out of the mitochondrial matrix.
b). out of the intermembrane space and into the matrix.
c). out of the mitochondrion and into the cytoplasm.
d). out of the cytoplasm and into the mitochondrion.

a). out of the mitochondrial matrix.

What process of cellular respiration generates the most ATP?
a). glycolysis
b). oxidation of pyruvate
c). Krebs cycle

d). chemiosmosis

Oxidizing which of the following substances yields the most energy?
a). proteins
b). glucose
c). fatty acids
d). water

c). fatty acids

The final electron acceptor in lactic acid fermentation is:
a). pyruvate
b). NAD+
c). lactic acid
d). O2

a). pyruvate

How much energy would be generated in the cells of a person who consumed a diet of pyruvate instead of glucose? Calculate the energy generated on a per molecule basis.
Answer: The person would not receive the benefits of energy generated from glycolysis because the pyruvate would enter directly into pyruvate oxidation. For each molecule of pyruvate consumed:

Answer: The person would not receive the benefits of energy generated from glycolysis because the pyruvate would enter directly into pyruvate oxidation.

The oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA would produce:

1 molecule of NADH

One round of the Krebs cycle would produce:The electron transport chain would generate:

3 molecules of NADH
1 molecule of FADH2
1 molecule of ATP

4 NADH x 2.5 ATP = 9 ATPs
1 FADH2 x 1.5 = 1.5 ATPs

For a total of 11.5 ATP molecules per each pyruvate molecule consumed.

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