this person did the first major experiment to discover DNA by:
giving smooth (s) and rough (r) pneumonia to a mouse.
-Just s pneumonia = dead mouse
-just r pneumonia = alive mouse
-dead s pneumonia = alive mouse
dead s and live r= dead mouse.
Discovered TRANSFORMATION- the dead S cells had given its genetic material to the live R cells turning them to alive S cells leading to a dead mouse.
discovered by Frederick Griffith,
- a change in genotype and phenotype due to assimilated ( taking in/ incorperating) external DNA .
confirmed the concept of Transformation by discovering what changed the lie R cells to live S cells, y exposing the cells to different macromolecules ( proteins, DNA, lipids) and saw that the DNA did the changing. His discovery was not widely accepted.
Hershey and Chase
provided definite evidence that DNA was the transforming factor by:
-using radioactive labeling of viruses to follow the radioactive DNA or Protein.
-labeled DNA with phosphorus and labeled protein with sulfur.
-infected bacteria with these viruses and traced the path of their genetic information and saw that DNA was the transforming factor NOT PROTEIN.
DNA monomer, made up of a 5 carbon sugar ( deoxyribose), a phosphate group, and 1 of 4 nitrogenous bases.
DNA nitrogen bases
Adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine.
RNA nitrogen bases
Adenine, Uracil, Cytosine, Guanine
thymine bonds with
guanine bonds with
made up of cytosine, uracil( RNA only), and thymine. these are a group of single ringed bases. ( remember the name of this base group also has a y like the bases that are in it :D)
made up of adenine and guanine, these are a group of double ringed bases.
( Erwin) Chargaff
this person determined that thymine bonds to adenine
cytosine bonds to guanine
( in RNA) adenine bonds to uracil.
also showing that purine bases always bond to pyrimidine bases.
this person took the photograph "photo 51" showing the double helix structure of DNA and this person determined the diameter of the helix.
Watson and Crick
these people won a noble prize for determining the structure of the DNA molecule. their molecule included the following 3 important things:
1. two outside strands made up of alternating deoxyribose and phosphate.
2. Cytosine paired to guanine by 3 HYDROGEN BONDS
3. Thymine paired to adenine by 2 HYDROGEN BONDS
the top strand of the DNA molecule is oriented in a 5' to 3' direction
the bottom strand is oriented in a 3' to 5' direction
DNA that is contained in the cytoplasm and is circular
DNA made up of chromosomes and is extremely long.
what forms when DNA coils around histone proteins which are then attracted to a phosphate due to the opposite charges.
the method of DNA replication where parental DNA strands separate and serve as templates for new DNA that are one half parental DNA and one half new DNA.
It has 3 main stages: unwinding, base pairing, and joining.
Helicase and unzip your genes ;) . ( haha I just couldn't resist.)
If I was a enzyme I'd be
this enzyme unwinds/ unzips the gene, breaking the hydrogen bonds.
single- stranded binding proteins
these proteins keep the DNA strands separated during replication.
theis enzyme adds short segments of RNA to the lagging strand to fill in the gaps between the Okazaki Fragments.
what the short segments of RNA that RNA primase puts down
this enzyme catalyzes the addition of nucleotides to the new DNA strand. It must always synthesise in the 3' to 5' direction leading it to make Okazaki fragments on the lagging strand.
in DNA replication the nucleotides are always ADDED to which end of the double helix strand?
-elongated as the DNA unwinds.
-it is BUILT CONTINUOUSLY by adding mucleotides to the 3' end.
-Elongates away from the replication fork
-it is BUILT DISCONTINUOUSLY into Okazaki Fragments. by DNA polymerase in the 5' to 3' direction.
this results when the lagging strand is being built.
these parts are between 100- 200 mucleotides long and are later connected together.
this enzyme links together the RNA primer( which is now DNA) to the Okazaki fragments on the lagging strand.
this type of replication unwinds in may places making the DNA look like it has multiple bubbles in it so more replication can go on at the same time.
in this type of replication the DNA strand only opens at one part of the circle.
to make proteins
What is DNAs job?
the chain of events that occur in all living things that leads to that leads to protein synthesis where
DNA codes for RNA, this guides to protein synthesis.
ribonucleic acid that has one more oxygen on the C2 then DNA. had adenine bond with uracil and comes in 3 major types.
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
-one of the 3 types of RNA
-Has long strands of RNA nucleotides that run complimentary to one strand of DNA
-they travel from the nucleus a ribosomes to direct protein synthesis.
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
-one of the 3 types of RNA
-this RNA associates with proteins to form ribosomes in the cytoplasm.
-this also allows the tRNA to continue moving through the ribosome and attaching more anticodons onto to mRNA
Transfer RNA (tRNA)
-one of the 3 types of RNA
-in smaller segments of RNA nucleotides
-transports amino acids to the ribosomes
-it is activated by attaching a specific amino acid to it
1st step of central dogma where DNA is transcribed into mRNA.
-uses RNA polymerase to sythesize mRNA
-moves out of nucleus and into the cytoplasm using a nuclear pore.
It is like photo copying DNA
3' to 5'
DNA is always read in the ____ direction
5' to 3'
DNA is always copied and adds Nucleotides with DNA polymerase in the in the ______ direction
made up of Condons
- an enzyme that regulates RNA synthesis by binding to a specific section where the mRNA will by synthesized from DNA.
-moves along the strand in a 3' to 5' direction
-Builds the mRNA strand in a 5' to 3' direction ( because the mRNA is antiparallel to its complimentary DNA template strand.
the intervening sequences that are in the DNA that are not transcribed to the final mRNA
the coding sequences that remain in the final mRNA
a three base code in DNA and mRNA that specifies for a specific amino acid.
the start enzyme. All Amino acids begin with it.
DNA = TAC
mRNA = AUG
tRNA = UAC
5' to 3'
ribosomes always read mRNA in the _____ direction
One Amino Acid
One codon makes____
-located in the tRNA
- a 3- base coding sequence that is complimentary to a mRNA codon
-is read in the 3' to 5' direction by ribosomes.
1 gene codes for
These cell parts read nucleic acid and translate it into an amino acid.
Humans have ____ number of pairs of chromosomes.
This is what you use to determine if you are heterozygous or homozygous dominant.
-Always cross your genes with a homozygous recessive.
Human Genome Project
- the goal of this project is to determine the 30 billion nucleotides that make up the Human DNA.
all the different genes you have in the nucleus of your cells is called your
the location of a gene on its chromosome.
98% of DNA is made up of_____
-these are the DNA of past relatives with traits that we no longer use.
-they are used in our bodies for the allowance of change or evolution.
codes for proteins
2% of DNA_____
technology that involves manipulating the DNA of one organism in order to insert the DNA of another organism's into it.
a type of breeding used to produce plants and animals with desired traits.
-also called an endonucleus
-it is an enzyme that recognizes and binds to certain DNA sequences and then splits the DNA whenever it reads that sequence; this makes unique DNA fragments.
this type of end is made by different types of restriction enzymes( like EcoRI) that cut the gene leaving bits of un paired nucleotides on the edges of the fragment.
-they are single-stranded DNA
-this type of end allows for a stranger hold between two joined DNA fragments
-these ends are created when a restriction enzyme cuts stright across both strands of DNA.
-these are not single-stranded
-they can be joined to other DNA but it is not as strong of a hold as with sticky ends.
DNA has a _____ charge due to the Phosphate group.
- a way of separating DNA fragments by size by:
- using an electric current to separate DNA fragments. The smaller fragments move faster and further towards the Positive side making a unique patter.
- Used for DNA profiling, fingerprinting, and as evidence in a court of law.
this new molecule that's made up of different DNA from different sources by removing DNA fragments and combining them with other DNA fragments is called what?
- these are common Vectors used in transformation and recombination they are small, circular, and double stranded. They can be cut with Restriction Enzymes to allow new DNA fragments to join on to them.
an Enzyme used to repair and replicate DNA that joins the plasmid or vectors and the new DNA fragments to gether.
Sequencing the Human Genome
- to determine one continuous genome each of the 46 chromosomes were split with restricting enzymes, combined with vectors, then cloned and sequenced with using machines.
- the end result was a long line of letters that scientists then had to make sense out of.
- the long sections of non coding regions are unique to all individuals.
-the process of separating these DNA fragments using gel electrophoresis in order to see these unique bands is called ____?
-This is also used to identify criminals
Single Nucleotide Polymophisms ( SNPs)
- genetic disorders that occur when a single nucleotide in the genome is altered.
Open Reading Frams Analysis ( ORF analysis)
How we identify genes by analyzing DNA containing at least 100 codons that start with MET and end with a stop Codon, by using _____
a field of study that involves creating and maintaining databases of biological information.
-they find genes, predict structure and evolution.
- the analysis of all expressed genes is done by using____.
-they are microscope slides with small amounts of DNA fragments on them.
-they help scientists determine whether the gene is expressed through genetics or environment.
-A project that is trying to map out all of the haplotypes ( regions of linked genome conditions and disorders.
-the info will help track diseases to certain areas and living conditions.
takes place in the cytoplasm
- the secod phase of the Central DOgma
-the 5' end of mRNA connects to the ribosomes to be translated into an amino acid.
-tRNA interprets mRNA