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Structure and Function of the Body Med Tech of Greenwood

Skeletal Muscle

Attaches to bone, striated, and voluntary

Cardiac Muscle

Cross striations, intercalated disks, and involuntary

Smooth Muscle

single nucleus, non-striated,involuntary, also called viseral muscle

Fascia

loose connective tissue outside the muscle organs that forms a flexible, sticky "packing material" between muscle, bones, and skin.

Origin

muscle's attachement to more stationary bone

Insertion

Muscles attachment to more moveable bone

Myosin

Thick myofilaments are formed from this protein

Actin

Thin myofilaments are composed mainly form this protein

Sacromere

Basic Contractile unit of skeletal muscle and are separated by z lines or z disks

Prime Mover

The muscle that is mainly responsible for that movement (contract)

Synergist

Helpers in producing a muscle movement(contract)

Antagonist

(relax) produce movements opposite to synergist and prime mover

Tonic Contraction

responsible for body posture

Red Fibers

"slow fibers" high content of oxygen storing myoglobin ex. long distance running

White Fibers

"fast fibers" low red myoglobin content ex. weight lifting or sprinting

Threshold Stimulus

The minimum level of stimulation required to cause a fiber to contract

Tetanic Contraction

Contractions melt together to produce a sustained contration or TETANUS

Isotonic Contraction

Produces movement at the joint, muscle changes length, and the insertion end moves relative to point of origin

Concentric Contraction

Muscle shortens( isotonic) ex. Lifting Book

Eccentric Contration

Muscle Lengthens (isotonic) ex. Lowering the book

Isometric Contractions

no change in length of muscle ex. pushing against a wall

Flexion

Makes angle between the bones at the joint smaller ex. bending

Extenision

Makes angle between the bones at the joint larger ex. straightening or stretching

Dorsiflexion

toes pointed upward

Plantar Flexion

Standing on toes

Inversion

bottom of foot faces midline of body

Eversion

bottom of foot faces the side of the body

Frontal Muscle

Raise your eyebrows

Orbicularis oris

Kissing muscle

Zygomaticus

Smiling Muscle

Muscles of Mastication

closing mouth and chewing movements

Masseter

elevates mandible

temporal

assists masseter in closing jaw

Sternocleidomastoid and Trapezius(shrug)

Work together to flex the head on the chest

Pectoralis Major

Chest Flexes and helps adduct upper arm

Lattimus Dorsi

Lower Back Extends and helps adduct upper arm

Deltoid

Shouder and upper arm, Abducts upper arm

Biceps Brachii

Primary flexor of forarm, in the middle of the upper arm Flexes elbow (abduction)

Triceps Brachii

Posterior surface of upper arm Boxers Muscle, extends elbow

Orbicularis Oculi

Closes eye

External and internal Oblique and Transverse Abdominis

Compresses Abdomen

Rectus Abdominus

Flexes Trunk

Illiopsoas

Flexes thigh or trunk

Sartorius

Flexes thigh and rotates lower leg

Gluteus Maximus

Extends Thigh

ADDUCTOR GROUP-Adductor Longus, Gracilis, and Pectineus

Adducts Thigh

HAMSTRING GROUP- Semimembraneous semitendinosus, and biceps femoris

Flexes Knee

QUADRICEPS GROUP- Rectus Femoris, Vastus Lateralis, Intermedius, and Medialis

Extends Knee

Fibularis longus and brevis

evert and plantar flex ankle

Tibialis Anterior

Dorsiflexes ankle

Gastrocnemius and Soleus

Plantar Flexes Ankle

Layers of muscle from outer to inner

External Oblique, Internal Oblique, and Transverse Abdominis

Muscle Fiber

Another name for a muscle cell

Heart

Cardiac muscle makes up the bulk of the tissue of the

Movement, Posture, and Heat Production

3 Functions of the Skeletal System

lactic Acid

The Waste product produces when the muscle must switch to and energy supplying process that does not require oxygen

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