Who made up the 1st Estate of the French Old Regime?
Who made up the 2nd Estate of the French Old Regime?
Who made up the 3rd Estate of the French Old Regime?
bourgeoisie, workers, and peasants
What are the subgroups within the 3rd Estate of the French Old Regime?
What was the bourgeoisie subgroup of the 3rd Estate made up of?
France was almost bankrupt, and he attempted to tax the 2nd Estate
Why did Louis XVI have to call the Estates-General?
3rd Estate was not well enough represented in the Estates-General
How did the National Assembly first come together?
Promise to not stop meeting until new constitution made; by the National Assembly when locked out of Estates-General
What was the Tennis Court Oath?
declaration of man's natural rights by the National Assembly
What was the Declaration of the Rights of Man?
"liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression"; freedom of speech, freedom of religion, equal justice for all
What were the ideas of the Declaration of the Rights of Man?
Austria proposed that Louis be put back on throne
Why did the French declare war on Austria?
radical debate club
Who were the Jacobins?
Who was the leader of the Jacobins?
leader of Committee of Public Safety; ruled France almost as dictator; Reign of Terror
Why was Robespierre "dangerous"?
trialled and beheaded = end of Reign of Terror
What happened to Robespierre?
French people voted him to have all real power
How did Napoleon evolve from a military hero to the emperor of France?
Austrian Netherlands, Italy, Switzerland, Spain, German kingdoms, Grand Duchy of Warsaw
What areas came under Napoleon's French Empire?
France's 1st naval defeat = England has strongest navy
What happened in the Battle of Trafalgar?
(1) blockage of England's ports
(2) Peninsular War (invade Portugal through Spain)
(3) Invasion of Russia
What were Napoleon's (3) mistakes that lead to his downfall?
"scorched-earth policy" = no food for French; attacked as French retreated at the start of winter
How did the Russians defeat Napoleon?
Coalition defeat = banished to Elba; escapes and raises army (The Hundred Days)
What are the sequence of events that led to Napoleon's exile to Elba and his return?
British defeat Napoleon in Belgium
(N banished to St Helena)
What is significant about the Battle of Waterloo?
Foreign minister of Austria; very influential at the Congress of Vienna
Who was Metternich?
want security and stability for Europe
Why did the Congress of Vienna meet?
(1) containment of France
(2) balance of power in Europe
What were the (3) goals of the Congress of Vienna?
a policy that rulers who lost their throne to Napoleon would be put back on throne
What was "legitimacy"? (Congress of Vienna)
kings, princes restored (basically back to normal from before French Rev.)
How was the Congress of Vienna a victory for conservatives?
(2) "Balance" of power (Britain, Prussia power increase)
What were the long-term effects of the Congress of Vienna?
Haiti, Spanish South America, Mexico, Brazil
What Latin American countries were involved in revolutionary movements?
(1) Haiti - France
(2) S.S.A. - Spain
(3) Mexico - Spain
(4) Brazil - Portuguese
What European powers were each of the Latin American independence movements against? (4)
nationality, language, culture, history, religion, territory
What are bonds that create a nation state? (6)
Italian prime minister of Sardinia that expanded and united Italy
Who was Cavour?
Young Italian that organized nationalist group "Young Italy"; brief republican gov leader after Italian revolts (driven to exile)
Who was Mazzini?
Led the "Red Shirts" in taking Sicily; united southern Italy (agreed to let Sardinian king rule)
Who was Garibaldi?
Prussian prime minister that expanded Prussia, united Germany
Who was Otto von Bismarck?
emotions; untamed nature; mysterious; past=simpler, nobler; heroes, folk, individual important, democracy
What are some of the traits of Romanticism?
Mary Shelley's "Frankenstein"
Lord Byron's "The Corsair"
What is an example of a gothic novel?
"life as it is"; science, scientific method; brush strokes NOT visible
What are some of the traits of Realism?
try to capture movement, ideas; brush strokes ARE visible
What are some of the traits of Impressionism?