Organic Molecules- Carbohydrates

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Carbohydrates

Contain the atoms C, H, O in a 1:2:1 ratio. Used for energy, for structure and some are building blocks of RNA and DNA. Deoxyribose, ribose, Fructose, galactose, glucose

Carbon backbone

Can be straight chains, branching chains, or ring structures.

Cellulose

Polysaccharide. Polymer of glucose. Contributes to the structure of plant cell walls.

Chitin

Polysaccharide. Polymer of glucose. Found in the exoskeleton of crustaceans and insects.

Dehydration synthesis

A chemical reaction in which molecules are joined together to build larger molcules. A water molecule is removed between the two seperate molecules in the process.

Deoxyribose

A monosaccharide building block of DNA

Dimer

A molecule composed of two monomers.

Disaccharides

Two monosaccharides combined through dehydration synthesis. Examples: Lactose, sucrose, maltose

Double covalent bond

Bonds in which two electrons are being shared from each of the atoms forming the bond. C=C

Fructose

A monosaccharide. Found in fruit. Can be converted into energy by our cells.

Functional groups

Groups of atoms that grant special characteristics to a molecule when they are attached to the carbon backbone. Amino, hydroxyl, carboxyl, aldehyde, ketone, phosphate, sulfhydryl

Galactose

A monosaccharide. Makes up the disaccharide lactose found in milk. Can be converted to energy by our cells.

Glucose

A monosaccharide. Found in our blood. Can be converted to useful chemical energy for cells.

Glycogen

A polysaccharide. A polymer of glucose. Carbohydrate storage molecule in animals. Stored in the liver and muscle cells.

Hydrolysis

A breakdown reaction that requires the addition of water. Ex. Breakdown of a disaccharide to a monosaccharide

Hydrophyllic

When a molecule is attracted to water it is called _____. Carbohydrates are an example of ______ molecules. These molecules are polar and have charges

Hydrophobic

When a molecule is repelled by water it is called _____. Lipids are an example of ______ molecules. These molecules are not polar and do not have charges.

Isomers

Molecules with the same molecular formula but different molecular structure.

Lactose

A disaccharide. Glucose + Galactose. Found in milk.

Lipids

Another name for fats or hydrophobic molecules.

Maltose

A disaccharide. Glucose + Glucose. End result of starch hydrolysis.

Monomer

1 single building block or sub-unit of a larger molecule (marcromolecule)

Monosaccharides

Monomers of carbohydrates

Organic molecules

Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. Must contain at least C and H.

Polymer

A molecule that contains three or more monomers

Polysaccharide

Many monosaccharides linked together.
Ex. starch, cellulose, glycogen, and chitin.

Ribose

A monosaccharide. One of the building blocks of RNA.

Starch

A polymer of glucose. A polysaccharide. Carbohydrate storage molecule of plants.

Sucrose

A disaccharide formed by dehydration synthesis. Glucose + Fructose

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