AP World History Unit II Study Guide

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"World Civilizations: The Global Experience: Fifth Edition" Chapters 7-15 Mixon KMHS

Muhammad's Flight to Mecca

622

Ayan

Rule landholding elite

Pressure for change in pre-Islamic society

Greater Byzantine and sasanian control over arabic tribes of the peninsula and Arabic migration to Mesopotamia

Bedouins

Arabic camel nomads

Ridda

Wars to defeat rival prophets and restore unity of Islam

5 pillars of Islam

1-confession of faith
2-prayer to Mecca 5 times a day
3-fasting during Ramadan
4-zakat: giving to poor. Charity
5-hajj: pilgrimage if you can afford

Nature of Bedouin society

Except for some sedentary agriculture in south, there was little art or architecture ad the chief focus was on oral poetry.

Nature of islamic religion in southeast Asia

-Becaise islam came from India, it was spread -by Sufis, holy men
-devoleped mystical nature that incorporated much of indigenous religions

Date Muslims came to India

711

Succession disputes in Islam

Succession disputes led to build up of personal armies often of slave soldiers

Literary figures of Abbasid empire

Sa'di
Firdawsi
Ibn'rushd
Omar Khayyam

**womwn often married at puberty--age 9

Hinduism Challenges of Islam

Placed greater emphasis on devotional (bhaktic) cults of gods and goddesses (ie shiva and Vishnu)

Berbers

-native desert dwellers of north Africa
-part of group from puritanical reform movements almashids and almashads

Askia

Military title taken by later rulers of Songhay

Political organization of Kongo

Confederation of smaller dates brought together under control of king and divided into 8 provinces

African societies unaffected by Christianity

did not have a system of writing

Economies of Africa

-trade handled by professional merchants
-NorthAfrica fully involved in Mediterranean and Arabic economic systems
-settled agriculture and iron working established
-stateless societies found it difficult to maintain long distance trade

Hagia Sophia

great church built in Constantinople by Justinian

Significance of Byzantine empire

-its development of orthodox christianity that broke off from Roman in 1054
-empire's ability to survive for almost 1000 years
-ability to spread its culture
-capital was major urban center

Basil II

emperor that became renowned in the 11th century as the slayer of the Bulgarians

Strengths of Byzantine cultural life

-richly colored mosaics
-painted icons
-certain amount of diversity
-dome buildings adapted from roman style

Conquest of Kievan Russia

the mongols/tatars were responsible for this

Moldboard

-technological innovation
-plow thatallowed deeper turning of soil

Expansion of Christianityin Europe

Iceland
Greenland
Spain
Eastern Germany
Poland

Holy Roman Emperors after 10th century

rule became increasingly hollow because they did not build a solid monarchy for regional foundations

Manorial System

-obligations bore heavily on serfs
-practically self sufficient
-agricultural production low
-originated in Roman Empire

Tambos

way station along roads in Incan Empire

Aztec women and position

spent many hours grinding grain for food because there wasno wheel

Aztec cities fighting for control

Culhuacan
Azcapotzalco
Texcoco
Tlacopan

Nature of Aztec economy

-Aztec state redistributed many goods recieved trough tribute
-specialized merchant class

women in Tang-Song Era

assertion of male dominance in family was especially pronounced

Sui dynasty

dynasty that entered period of political chaos after the fall of the Qin Han

Tang emperors toward Confucian Scholar

suppoorted rebirth of Confucian scholar gentry often at theexpense of the aristocracy

Cultural traits introduced into Veitnam

-Chinese military organization
-Chinese-styled schools
-Chinese agricultural cropping techniques and irrigation
-Chinese examination system and beaurocracy

Rise of Samurai on the peasantry

Japanese peasants reduced to status of serfs bound to the land they worked

Tale of Genji

lifein imperial court of Heian

Status of Mongolian women Yuan dynasty

-Mongolian women remained relativelyindeppendent
-refused to practice footbinding
-retained rights and property

Mongol conquest of Song China

proved one of toughest areas for Mongols to conquer

Ekaterinberg Mongol invasion

city that profitted mostfrom Mongol invasion

Ming dynasty

dynasty that succeeded Mongol-Yuan

Cessation of trade under Ming dynasty

in Chinese terms, a brief emphasis on trading and commerce that was unusual not cessational

Symptoms of decline of Arabic Caliphate

-decline in tax revenue for state
-landlords ceased to experiment with new agricultural techniques
-landlords seized power over peasants
-narrowing of intellectual life symbolizedby triumph of religion

Status of artisans Abbasid cities

artisans were free men who owned their own tools andcreated guilde-like organizations to neggotiate wages

Reasons for nonconversions in Islam

would have had to share booty and would have lost tax revenue

Mahmud of Ghazni

descendent of turkish slave dynasty in Afghanistanwhich led a series of expaditions into India to siezegold and such

Common cultural traits of East African Coast

Bantu-based and Arab-influenced Swahilli language

Political and religious universality in Africa

neither universal state Christianity and Islam found adherence in Africa

Justinian's positive contributions

-allowed for new architectural innovation
-systemization of Roman ligal code
-rebuilding of Constantinople
-construction og Hagia Sophia

Tatar invasion of Russia

Tatar supervision didn't destroy Russian Christianity or nativeRussian aristocracy

Peter Alderlard

Persian scholar who was the author of "Yes and No" and utilizes logic to examine ecclesiatical doctrine

dates of Toltec Empire

lasted until 1150

Era of Division

period of political disorder and chaotic warfare that followed the Qin-Han Era

Buddhist Monks

group that threatened the security of Japanese imperial court that imperial court moved to Heian

Methods to keep Mongols and Chinese separate

-Mongols forbidden to marry ethnic Chinese
-Chinese scholar couldn'tlearn Mongol language
-military forces kept separate
-only women from nomadic tribe selected for imperial herum

year Ming halted voyages

1433

status of women in Bedouin society

enjoyed greater freedom and higher status than Byzantine and Persian women

Groups responsible for Islamic conversion

traders
merchants
Sufi mystics

causes of split to Caltolocism and Orthodox

-icons
-Roman Catholic practice of requiring celebacy for priests

Feudal monarchy in England

introduced abruptlt following 1066, while French feudal monarchy developed slower

Andean civilization

religious practicemost closely associated with state and person was Sun god

Zhu Xi and neo-Confician Song

most prominent of all neo-Confucian scholars bades in Japan among warrior elites

Decline of Tang dynasty

corresponded with development of regional power

Basic unit of Mongol society

tribe

Beginnings of Renaissance

begins in Italy

Political and religious successorin Islam

caliph

Islamic invasions of India

withmuslims, people of india encountered for the first time a large scale influx of invadors with a civilization as sophisticated as their own

Juula

African traders associated with the Mali empire

Muhammad ibn Qasim

commander of first Islamic incusion into the send in 711

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