Ch 6: Diseases, conditions, etc of the Urinary System

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Urinary System

azotemia

condition of urea in the blood (a toxic condition) resulting from disease of the kidney in which waste products are in the blood that are normally excreted by the kidney (also called uremia)

uremia

condition of urea in the blood

cystitis

inflammation of the bladder

cystocele

protrustion of the bladder

cystolith

stone in the bladder

glomerulonephritis

inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney

hydronephrosis

abnormal condition of water in the kidney (distention of the renal pelvis with urine because of an obstruction)

nephritis

inflammation of the kidney

nephroblastoma

kidney tumor containing developing cells (malignant tumor)

Wilms' tumor

nephroblastoma

nephrohypertrophy

excessive development (increase in size) of the kidney

nephrolithiasis

condition of stone(s) in the kidney

nephroma

tumor of the kidney

nephromegaly

enlargement of the kidney

nephroptosis

drooping kidney

pyelitis

inflammation of the renal pelvis

pyelonephritis

inflammation of the renal pelvis and kidney

ureteritis

inflammation of the ureter

ureterocele

protrusion of the ureter (distally into the bladder)

ureterolithiasis

condition of stones in the ureters

ureterostenosis

narrowing of the ureter

urethrocystitis

inflammation of the urethra and the bladder

epispadias

congenital defect in which the urinary meatus is located on the upper surface of the penis

hypospadias

congenital defect in which the urinary meatus is located on the underside of the penis, a similar defect can occur in the female

polycystic kidney disease

condition in which the kidney contains many cysts and is enlarged

renal calculus

stone in the kidney

renal failure

loss of kidney function resulting in its inability to remove waste products from the body and maintain electrolye balance

renal hypertension

elevated blood pressure resulting from kidney disease

urinary retention

abnormal accumulation of urine in the bladder because of an inability to urinate

urinary suppression

sudden stoppage of urine formation

urinary tract infection (UTI)

infection of one or more of the organs of the urinary tract

cystectomy

excision of the bladder

cystolithotomy

incision of the bladder to remove a stone

cystorrhaphy

suturing the bladder

cystostomy

creating an artificial opening into the bladder

cystotomy, vesicotomy

incision of the bladder

lithotripsy

surgical crushing of a stone

meatotomy

incision of the meatus

nephrectomy

excision of a kidney

nephrolithotomy

incision of the kidney to remove a stone

nephrolithotripsy

surgical crushing of a stone in the kidney

nephrolysis

separating the kidney (from other body structures)

nephropexy

surgical fixation of the kidney

nephrostomy

creation of an artificial opening into the kidney

pyelolithotomy

incision of the renal pelvis to remove a stone

pyeloplasty

surgical repair of the renal pelvis

ureterectomy

exicision of a ureter

ureterostomy

creation of an artificial opening into the ureter

urethroplasty

surgical repair of the urethra

vesicourethral suspension

suspension pertaining to the bladder and urethra

extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

a noninvasive treatment for removal of kidney stone(s) or urethral stone(s). By using ultrasound and fluoroscopic imaging, the stone is positioned at a focal point. repeated firing of shock waves renders the stone into fragments that pass from the body in the urine

ESWL

extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

fulguration

destruction of living tissue with an electric spark (commonly used to destroy bladder growths)

renal transplant

surgical implantation of a donor kidney to replace a nonfuctioning kidney

cystogram

radiographic image of the bladder

cystography

radiographic imaging of the bladder

intravenous urogram

radiographic image of the urinary tract (with contrast medium injected intravenously)

IVU

intravenous urogram

nephrogram

radiographic image of the kidney

nephrography

radiographic imaging of the kidney

nephrosonography

process of recording the kidney using sound (an ultrasound test)

nephrotomogram

sectional radiographic image of the kidney

renogram

(graphic) record of the kidney (a nuclear medicine test produced by radioactivity after injection a radiopharmaceutical, or radioactive material, into the blood)

retrograde urogram

radiographic image of the urinary tract (contrast medium is instilled through urethral catheters by a cystoscope)

voiding cystourethrography

radiographic imaging of the bladder and the urethra (radiopaque dye is instilled in the bladder. radiographic images are taken of the bladder and during urination)

cystoscope

intrument used for visual examination of the bladder

cystoscopy

visual examination of the bladder

nephroscopy

visual examination of the kidney

ureteroscopy

visual examination of the ureter

urethroscope

intrument used for visual examination of the urethra

KUB

a simple radiographic image of the abdomen. used to view the kidneys, ureters, and bladder to determine size, shape, and location. also used to identify calculi in the kidney, ureters, or bladder, or to diagnose intestinal blockage

BUN

blood urea nitrogen

blood urea nitrogen

a blood test that measure the amount of urea in the blood; used to determine kidney function. increased indicates renal dysfunction

creatinine

a blood test that measure the amount of creatinine in the blood. elevated amount may indicate impaired kidney function

specific gravity

a test performed on a urine specimin to measure the concentrating or diluting ability of the kidneys

urinalysis

multiple routine tests performed on a urine specimin

albuminuria

albumin in the urine (albumin is important blood protein, but when found in urine indicates a kidney problem)

anuria

absence of urine (failure of the kidney to produce urine)

diuresis

condition of urine passing through (increased amount of urine)

dysuria

difficult or painful urination

glycosuria

sugar (glucose) in the urine

hematuria

blood in the urine

meatal

pertaining to the meatus

nephrologist

a physician who studies and treats diseases of the kidney

nephrology

study of the kidney (a brance of medicine dealing with diseases of the kidney)

nocturia

night urination

oliguria

scanty urine (amount)

polyuria

much (excessive) urine

pyuria

pus in the urine

urinary

pertaining to the urine

urologist

a physician who studies and treats diseases of the urinary tract

urology

study of the urinary tract (a branch of medicine dealing with diseases of the male and female urinary systems and the male reproductive system)

catheter

flexible, tubelike device, for withdrawing or instilling fluids

distended

stretched out

enuresis

involuntary urination

hemodialysis

procedure for removing impurities from the blood because of an inability of the kidneys to do so

HD

hemodialysis

incontinence

inability to control bladder and/or bowls

micturate

to urinate or void

peritoneal dialysis

procedure for removing toxic wastes when the kidney is unavailable to do so; the peritoneal cavity is used as the receptacle for the fluid used in the dialysis

stricture

abnormal narrowing

urinal

receptacle for urine

urinary catheterization

passage of a catheter into the urinary bladder to withdraw urine

urodynamics

pertaining to the force and flow of urine within the urinary tract

void

to empty or evacuate waste material; especially urine

ARF

acute renal failure

cath

catheterization, catheter

CRF

chronic renal failure

ESRD

end-stage renal disease

ESWL

extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

IVP

intravenous pyelogram

IVU

intravenous urogram

OAB

overactive bladder

SG

specific gravity

UA

urinalysis

UTI

urinary tract infection

VCUG

voiding cystourethrogram

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