Atoms, Bonding, The periodic Table, and Ionic Bonds

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Ch. 5

Valence Electrons have the highest______ level?

Energy.

Where are valence electrons located?

They are the outermost electrons of an atom.

Atoms with a complete outer shell tend to be chemically what?

Stable (and less likely to react).

Atoms of most elements are more stable when they have how many valence electrons?

8, (or basically a complete outer shell, for example helium).

Atoms usually react in a way that makes them more stable by either doing what?

Gaining electrons, or Losing electrons.

Atoms that lose or gain electrons can become chemically combined to other atoms through what?

Through a chemical bond.
-The Interaction (losing, gaining, or sharing) of valence electrons.

What is a chemical bond?

The force of attraction that hold two atoms together as a result of the rearrangement of electrons between them.

How do electrons get shared?

When atoms bonds, electrons may be transferred from one atom to another.

In either case, a new substance is created when what happens?

When a chemical reaction occurs.

What are ions?

An atom or group of atoms that has an electrical charge (+ or -).

When an atom loses an electron, it loses a negative charge and becomes a _____ion?

Positive.

When an atom gains an electron, it gains a negative charge and becomes a _____ion?

Negative.

What are Polyatomic ions?

Ions that are made of more than one atom (ex. carbonate CO3-2 is made up of carbon and oxygen atoms); they act as a single unit and have an overall charge.

What happens when a positive and a negative ion come together they form what?

They form an ionic compound (this attraction between two oppositely charged ions is an ionic bond).

If the negative ion is a single element, the end of its name changes to what?

"-ide".

If the negative ion is a polyatomic, its name changes to what?

"-ate", or "ite".

The positive ion comes first, followed by what?

By the name of the negative ion.

How many more metals are there on the periodic table than there are nonmetals?

4 times.

What are the horizontal rows on the periodic table called?

Periods.

What are the vertical columns called?

Groups.

All the elements in a group have the same number of what in their outer shell?

Electrons.

Which of the alkali metals is the most dramatically reactive?

Francium.

Which of the alkali metals is the least dramatically reactive?

Lithium.

Which group of nonmetals is the most reactive?

Group 17 (Halogen).

How was chlorine used during WW1?

As a weapon (HCL).

What is formed when chlorine reacts with water?

Blinded soldiers by nucleic acids.

What do the elements in a single group on the periodic table have in common?

The number of valence electrons.

Which two groups of electrons of elements are the most reactive?

Group 1 (Alkali Metals) and Group 17 (Halogen Group)

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