The breakdown of peptidoglycan to N-acetylmuramic acid, N-acetylglucosamine and peptides is an example of:
Formation of peptide bonds between amino acids to build a polypeptide would be called:
Enzymes that can function at boiling water temperatures or other harsh conditions would be termed:
10. Enzymes that catalyze removing electrons from one substrate and adding electrons to another are called:
11. When enzyme action stops due to a buildup of end product this control is called:
A. negative feedback.
In addition to electrons, which of the following is also involved in electron transfer?
The most likely place where an exoenzyme participates in a chemical reaction is:
E. outside of the cell.
The step involving ATP, hexokinase, and the phosphorylation of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate is:
an example of substrate-level phosphorylation.
Which of the following is NOT involved in the step that occurs between glycolysis and the TCA cycle?
E. pyruvic acid accepts electrons from NADH
During which of the phases of cellular respiration is the majority of ATP formed?
A. electron transport
In bacterial cells, when glucose is completely oxidized by all the pathways of aerobic cellular respiration, how many ATP are generated?
E. 38 ATP
When glucose is broken down by glycolysis during bacterial fermentation, how many ATP are generated?
A. 2 ATP
As the electron transport carriers shuttle electrons, they actively pump _____ into the outer membrane compartment setting up a concentration gradient called the proton motive force.
C. hydrogen ions
In anaerobic respiration, all of the following can serve as the final electron acceptor, except:
Photosynthesis is responsible for producing >50% of Earth's oxygen. During photosynthesis inorganic __ is fixed into organic compounds like___ without the help of sunlight.
B. CO2, C6H12O6
In the eukaryote, the respiratory chain is located in the ___, whereas the majority of ATP is produced by the respiratory chain in the _______ of a prokaryote.
C. Mitochondria, outer membrane space
ATP molecules are catalysts that lower the activation energy needed to initiate a reaction.
Hydrolysis reactions are catabolic reactions that use water to split the reactant into smaller subunits.
Facultative anaerobes can utilize aerobic cellular respiration when oxygen is present and fermentation when oxygen is in low supply.
51. All aerobic bacterial species have identical electron acceptors in their electron transport systems.
52. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate is an intermediary of glycolysis that can also be utilized in biosynthetic pathways.
54. Building block molecules for biosynthetic pathways come from the cell's catabolic pathways and from the environment. True False
55. The cell's metabolic reactions involve the participation of _____ that lower the activation energy needed for the initiation of a reaction.
56. _____ reactions are anabolic reactions involving ligases for synthesis and the release of one water molecule for each bond formed.
58. The redox carriers of the electron transport chain that have a tightly bound metal atom responsible for accepting and donating electrons are the _____.
Each FADH2 from the Kerbs cycle enters the electron transport system and gives rise to _____ ATP's.
_____ enzymes have an active site, and an additional regulatory site for non-substrate attachment.
_____ testing can differentiate between bacterial species fermentation that produce mixed acids or 2, 3 butanediol.