The West/Ideology and Reality of Western Expansion

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History Chapter 17

Diverse Peoples Settled The West

The west was more diverse than the big cities of the East in the late 19th century.
The dynamic produced a complex blend of racism and prejudice.
African Americans, Hispanics, and Mormons faces open hostility in many areas.

What Motivated People To Move West

Wealth, mainly gold and silver
Land
Religious Freedom
Opportunity

Gold and Silver

1849 California's Gold Rush occurred.
1859 Refugees from the Gold Rush flocked to the Washoe basin in Nevada where the Comstock Silver Lode was discovered.
1873 Comstock miners discovered a richer vein of ore that prompted the transition from-scale industry to corporate enterprise.

The Homestead Act of 1862

Promised 160 acres free citizen or prospective citizens who settled the land for five years, and transcontinental railroads.
By the 1870s homesteading land grew scarce on the prairie and farmers pushed further west.

Conditions

People who moved to the west faced many hardships, such as:
Deprivation, Loneliness, Disease,Death, Blizzards, Tornadoes, Grasshoppers, Hailstorm, Draught, and Prairie Fires.

Many Succeeded

A period of relatively good rainfall in the early 1880s encouraged farming, but a protracted drought in the late 1880s and early 1890s sent starving farmers reeling back from plains.
By far the biggest Winners of the Homestead Act of 1862 were the railroads.

Impending Doom

From the early days of the Republic, Americans had advocated a policy of Indian removal.
Throughout the 19th century settlers repeatedly trespassed into Indian land and were suprised when they encountered hostility.
The hostility escalated into thirty years of Indian wars that culminated in the final removal of the Indians.

Resistance

On the plains, the Sioux, Cheyenne, Arapaho, Nez Perce, Camanche, Kiowa, Ute, and Navajo nations put up a determined resistance.
These wars involved atrocities on both sides.
Under the leadership of Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull, the Sioux tribes messed to resist.

Resistance

The Sioux won a pyrrhic victory against U.S. General George Custer in 1876. Within five years Crazy Horse was killed, Sitting Bull surrendered, and the government took the Black Hills and confined the Lakota to the great Sioux reservation.

Dawes Act

The practice of rounding up Indians and herding them into reservation lost momentum in the 1880s in favor of allotment, a new policy designed to encourage assimilation through farming and the ownership of private property.

The Dawes Allotment Act

In 1887, Congress passed this law to abolish reservations and allot lands to individual Indians as private property.
Well-meaning Americans viewed the Dawes Act as a positive initiative, but the act effectively reduced Indians lands from 138 million acres to 48 million.

The Last Act of the Indian Resistance

Apaches of the Southwest choose violent resistance.
Geronimo repeatedly led raiding parties off the reservation in the 1880s but was eventually defeated by U.S. general Nelson Miles.

The Ghost Dance

One the plains, many tribes turned to a nonviolent form of resistance the compelling new Ghost Dance Religion.

The Last Act of Indian Resistance 2

In December 1890 when Sitting Bull joined the Ghost Dancers in South Dakota, he was arrested and later shot and killed by Indian police at the Pine Ridge reservation.

The Last Act of Indian Resistance 2

A melee ensured, and the army opened fire; minutes later, more than two hundred Sioux lay dead or dying in the snow.
Although the massacre at Wounded Knee did not end the story of Native American it ended their way of life.

The West Of The Immigration

Even as the Old West was dying the myth of the 'Wild West' was being born.
The dime novel, published in the East and written by folks who had never been there, capitalized on Wild Bill Hickock and other gun-slinging cowboys heroes to entertain readers.

The West Of The Immigration

By 1893, when historian Fredrick Jackson Turner proclaimed the frontier closed, the high drama of the struggle for the had become little more than a thrilling but harmless entertainment.

The Glided Age

The West Americans with its get rich quick addiction to gambling and speculation, played and integral part in the politics and economics.

The Gilded A Age

Europeans expanded their authority and wealth through imperialism and colonialism establishing far-flung empires abroad.

Imperialism and Colonialism

Were language applied to the Europeans powers in this period that makes explicit how expansion of the west involved the conquest, displacement, and rules over the native Americans.

President Andrew Jackson

Pushed 5 civilized tribes in the 1830s- The Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, and Seminole people off their land in the southern United States.

The Cherokee

Called their paths "The trail on which we cried".

Manifest

Is the belief that the united states has a "God-given" right to aggressively spread the values of white civilization and expand the nation from the ocean to ocean dictated U.S. policy.

Clash of Cultures

*Native Americans
*Immigrants

Diverse people settle the west

○ The west was more diverse than the big cities of the east in the late 19th century.
○ This dynamic produced a complex blend of racism and prejudice.
○ African Americans, Hispanics, and Mormons faces hostility in many areas.

The West

By 1887 then west changed. People moved to the west. Mining lowered people to the west. Homesteaders and fortune seekers came there. Indians seek refuge in religion. "Sooners" are the people who had slipper already through the army line. There were more land rushes throughout the west. The Indians may now become a free man, they were given lands of their own.

Ideology

Come from the Greek, idea 'from pattern' + logos (denoting discourse or compilation). Ideology is therefore defined as a system of ideas; especially those that form the basis of economic or political theory and policy.

Gold rush in the history of American west

○ Gold id one of the central foci for old world interest in new world, since 1492 and on. Columbus and others were the epilogue to the Spanish conquistador. What do you do with a bunch of knights if there isn't enough land for everyone.

Implications for indigenous population

○ Arrival of euro-American gold prospectors and settlers increasingly diminished the resources that
○ Burn boat drive received its namesake from an incident that took place due to these larger, ideological and gold-driven reasons.

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