Attention--> Interest-->Desire--> Action
Levels of Persuasion
How is advertising success measured?
Sales, brand choice, market share, elasticity
3 key intermediate advertising effects
Experience, affect, and cognition.
*The omission of one can lead to the overestimation of the effect of the others
Short term elasticities are...
...small and decrease during the product life cycle
What frequency is sufficient for advertising an established brand?
1-3 reminders per purchase cycle
Is the concept of a space of intermediate effects supported?
Yes, but a hierarchy (sequence) is not.
Cognitive bias interferes with...
... affect measurement
2 tasks of media planning
Media planning is...
the process of selecting media time and space to disseminate advertising messages in order to accomplish marketing objectives
any planned and unplanned form of exposure to and interaction with a product or service
planned brand contact
tv and radio commercials, product sampling
unplanned brand contact
word of mouth, can be more influential and less suspicious than planned brand contact
4 steps to media planning
1: set media objectives in light of marketing and ad. objectives
2: develop media strategy
3: design tactics for realizing strategy
4: evaluate the plan's effectiveness
people whom the media plans to influence through brand contact, can be primary or secondary
gender, age, etc.
baby boomers, gen x, gen y
# of copies a magazine has... eg. coverage
# of those exposed to vehicle
cognitive effect of advertising
emotional effect of advertising
leads & sales
sets objective total # of people exposed to media plan
1: percentage 50= 50%
2: measures audience acc. over time
3: doesn't double count
Gross Rating Points (GRP)
if 42% of US TV households are watching, a commercial running once has a GRP of 42, twice, 84, etc.
84/56=1.5, viewers had 1.5 opportunities to watch an ad
how many exposures different people experience, how many people will see the ad once, twice, etc.
identifying and satisfying customer needs profitably. Profitable for you, profitable for them
What 3 people do advertisers work for?
*The employer, the advertiser, the consumer
Top of mind awareness
Expectations of sales staff
-develop new business
-retain current business
Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, Timely
The Sales Cycle:
Prospecting, qualifying, needs analysis, presentation, answering objections, closing, relationship management
The balance of finding prospects while managing relationships and making presentations
Who is the decision maker, is this organization capable of paying?
Build trust, gather information
well-planned statement, pique interest, connect w/their interests... recap challenges addressed and state the purpose of the call
the time to address concerns or fears
Phour phactors of phailure
the product itself, the medium, the schedule, the copy/creative
Types of media research
media effects: violence, gender & ethnic stereotyping, advertising and influence, children's issues
numbers by demographic, psychographic, social purchase patterns, Values and Lifestyles studies (VALS)
the amount of error that may be attributed to sampling, expressed as a percentage... < or >
typically .05, which means that 95 times out of 100, the true "rating" for the total population will fall within the margin of standard error
November, Feb, May, and July for 4 weeks
Nielsen- a week's worth of viewing by household, Arbitron- continuous measurement (44 weeks)
personal people meters
Desired outcomes for TV & Radio
TV: audience flow (show loyalty) and news supremacy. Radio: total audience (cume) and time spent listening (AQH)
Metro survey area (home city and closest counties)
designated market area (Nielsen) or ADI (ARB) area of dominant influence
Nielsen Survey Index (outside DMA) for total reach
% of total population tuned to a specific station during a specific day part
Homes/persons using TV
reported as persons, shares, ratings (avg 1/4 hour)
total # of different people who watch TV or listen to radio in a given amount of time
cost of schedule divided by GRPs, cost per point
cost divided by persons or households reached x1000
(spots x AQH) disregards duplication
spots x rating points
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