Life Span Chapter 11

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physica size, shape, obesity, asthma,intellectual skills, intelligence test, ADHD, bipolar, LD, autism, & spectrum disorders, causes and treatments, insight, dev. psychopathology,manifestations - gows olders and treatment w/ social context.

Compared with biosocial development during other periods of the life span, biosocial development during this time, known as ________- ______ is ______ _________ (relatively smooth/often fraught with problems). For example, disease and death during these years are _____________ (common/rare).

middle childhood; relatively smooth; rare

Children grow at a ___________(faster/slower)rate during middle childhood than they did earlier.
Describe several other features of physical development during middle childhood.

slower
During middle childhood, muscles become stronger and heart and lung strength and capacity expand.

Death during middle childhood has been reduced dramatically because of ________________. Another improvement in medical care involves _____________care.
State two important strategies for preventing many adult health problems in children.
State some of the benefits and hazards of childhood sports.

immunization; oral
Parents must be diligent in providing regular preventive care, and children must develop the habit of taking care of their health.
The benefits of sports include better overall health, less obesity, an appreciation of cooperation and fair play, improved problem-solving ability, and respect for teammeates and opponents of many ethnicities and nationalities. The hazards may include loss of self-esteem as a result of criticism, injuries, reinforcement of existing prejudices, increase stress, and time taken away from learning academic skills.

Especially for low-income children, participating in structured sports activities correlates with improved ____________achievement, less ___________, and development of ____________.

academic;delinquency;friendships

Jethro plays on a Little League baseball team and enjoys casual sports with his school friends. Jethro will

d. enjoy better overallh ealth, learn to appreciate fair play, exhitbit improved problem-solving abilities.
Participation in sports during middle childhood hleps children develop not only bilogically but also cognitively and socially.

Summarizing physical development during middle childood, Professor Wilson notes each of the following except that it is the healthies period of the life span, mortal injuries are unusual during this time and that growth is slower than during early childhood.

c. most fatal childhood diseases occur during middle childhood. (not so)

Every physical and psychological characteristic affects and is affected by the _________ context.

social

The number that expresses the relationship of height to weight is the __ __ __. Children are said to be overweight when there body mass index is above the __________(what number?)percentile of the growth chart for their age. Obesity is defined as having a BMI above the _____________ (what number?) percentile.

body mass index; 85th;95th

Overweight children are more likely to have ____________, high_______ ________ ________ and elevated levels of bad ________. As weight increases, on average, school achievement and self-esteem ____________(increase/decrease), and ___________increases.

asthma;blood pressure;cholesterol; decrease;loneliness

People who inherit a gene allele called ___________are more likely to be obese and suffer from diabetes.

FTO

Three factors are relevant to obesity:genes, _________ _________, and _________-- ____________that determine the quality of school lunches.
State several parenting practices that protect against childhood obesity.

family eating habits;government policies
Obesity is rare if infants are breast-fed and if preschoolers rarely watch TV or drink soda, and if school-age children exercise

A chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways is called _____. This disorder is _______(more common/less common today than in the past.

asthma; common

The causes or triggers of asthma include ________, not getting the infections and childhood disease that would strengthen their _______ systems, and exposure to ________such as pet hair. According to the _______ hypothesis asthma is more prevalent today because contemporary children are ___________from viruses and bacteria.

genes;immune;allergens;hygene;'overprotected

The use of injections and inhalers to treat asthma is an example of ______prevention. the best approach to treating childhood diseases is __________ ____________, which in the case of asthma includes proper ___________of homes and schools, decreased __________, eradication of cockroaches, and safe outdoor _______________ ______________.

tertiary;primary prevention;ventilation;pollution;play areas

To help differentiate and remember the various middle childhood experiences that protect against the promote adult health probalems, make a list that discribes your own experiences during middle childhood.

d. For example, did your parents promote regular exercise/ Excessive television watching?
Exercise all the time - no TV allowed except when Dad came home.

Because 11 yr old Wayne is obese, he runs a greater risk of developing

b. diabetes
Obeses children are no more likely to be dyslexic, physically intimidating, or hyperactive than other children.

Concluding her presentaion on "Asthma During Middle Childhood," Amanda mentions each of the following asthma is much more common today than 20 yrs ago, the incidence of aasthma continues to increase, carpeted floors, airtigh windows and less outdoor play increase the risk of asthma attacks.

Genes typically do play a role in a child's susceptiblitiy to asthma

Advances in brain development during early childhood enable emerging _________ regulation and _______ _______ ______. Left-right coordination also emerges the _______ ________ stregthens connections between the brain's two ____________. The executive functions of the brain also begin developing, along with maturation of the _________- _________ which enable control over various ________.

emotional;theory of mind;corpus callosum;hemispheres;prefrontal cortex;impulses

The length of time it takes a person to respond to a particular stimulus is called

reaction time

Two other advances in brain function at this time include the ability to pay special heed to one source of information among many, called ___________ ____________, and the _________ of thoughts and actions that are repeated in sequence.

selective attention;automatization

The potential to master a specific skill or to learn a certain body of knowledge is a person's _______. The most commonly used tests to measure this potential are ____ ______. In the original version of the most commonly used tests to measure this potential are __________ . In the original version of the most commonly used test of this type, a person's score was calculated as a ___ ______ (the child's_________________ _______ divided by the child's ___ ____ and multiplied by 100 to determine his or her __________).

aptitude;IQ tests, quotient;mental age;chronological age; IQ

Tests that are designed to measure what a child has learned are called ____________tests.

achievement

The average IQ scores of nations have _________(increased/decreased), a phenomenon called the ________ _______.

increased;Flynn Effect

Many critics of IQ testing contend that we have ___________ ____________. Robert Sternberg believes that there are 3 distinct types of intelligence: _______, ________, ___________.

multiple intelligences; academic;creative;practical

Howard Gardner describes ___________ (how many?) distinct intelligences. His theory has been influenctial in _________________, especially as it applies to children.

nine;education

Another criticism of IQ testing is that every test reflects the _________of the people who create, administer,and take it.

culture

Neuroscientists agree that brain development ____(depends/does not depend) on a person's specific experiences, that brain development _________ (continues/does not continue) throughout life, and that children with disorders ________(do not /often do) have unusual brain patterns.

depends;continues;often do
Think about it: See text pages 306-308 for a discussion of the pros and cons of IQ testing

Angela was born in 1984.In 1992, she scored 125 on an intlligence test. Using the original formula, what was Angel's mental age when she took the test?_____________-

120 yrs old. At the time she took the test, Angela's chronological age was 8. Knowing that her IQ was 125, we can solve the equqation to yield a mental age of 10 (125=x/8).

What age individual, who is likely to have the longest reaction time?

d.60 yr old
Although reaction time decreses for a time as we age, it slowly lengthens in adulthood. It takes longer to accomplish things.

Brain can showed that Malcolm's prefrontal cortex and left inferior frontal gyrus were active while he tried to understand irony. This indicates that he had not yet achieved _____this ability.

b. automization of
Genetic variability has not changed in recent decades.

Professor Allen by teaches in a public school in a large city. Following the views of Howard Gardner and Robert Sternber, the professor is most critical of tradional aptitude and achieve most critical of traditional aptitude and achievement tests because

c.measure only a limited set of abilities.
sternberg and Gardner believe that there are muliple intelligences rather than the narrowly defined abilities measured by traditional aptitude and achievement test.

The file of study that is corncerned with childhood psychological disorders is ___________. This perspective has provided survival lessons that apply to all children. Four of these are that _____________is normal, disability ________(chages/does not change) over time, adulthood may be ____________- __________and diagnosis and treatment reflect the __________ ___________.

developmental psychopathology; abnormality;changes;better or worse; social context

Many disorders can be mitigated if diagnosed long before _____ and if treatment begins early. The problem is that ______ ______is more difficult than in a younger a child is.

adolescence; accurate diagnosis

Disorders often occur together are. The principle __________ that one cause can have many final manifestations is ______. The principle that one developmental manifestation may have many causes is __________.

comorbid;multifinality;equifinality

A condition that manifests itself in a difficulty in concentrating for more than a few moments is called ___________- _______ -___________.

ADD

The most common type of this disorder, which includes a need to be active, often accompanied be excitabliity and impusivity, is called ___ ____ ____ ____ Children suffering fom this disorder can be ________, ______.and ______________.

ADHD; inattentive; impulsive; overactive

The condition characterized by extreme mood swings, which vary from _________ to deep _________, is called _______ _________.

euphoria;depression;bipolar disorder

(A view from Science) The most common drug for treating children with ADHD is ____________. However, younger chidren are taking at least 20 other _____________ drugs for depression, anxiety, developmental delay, autism, and other conditions. Most ________________(professionals/parents) are convinced that medication helps chools children with emotional problems, but most _____________(professionals/parents) are less sure.

Ritalin;psychoactive;professionals;parents

Children who have difficulty acquiring a particular skill that others acquire easily are said to have a _____________ ______________. These deficits usually _________ (do/do not) result in lifelong impediments.

learning disablity;do not

A disability in reading is called ______.

dyslexia

The most severe disturbance of early childhood is _________, which is used to describe children who have extremely inadequate __________-skills. children who are less withdrawn are usually diagnosed with ________ __________ _______.

autism;social;autisticspectrum disorder

In autistic spetrum disorder, deficiencies appear in three areas: delayed ___________, impaired ____________ ____________, and unusal, repetitive _____________.

language;social responses;play

Children who have autisic symptoms but are unusually intelligent in some area and have close-to-normal speech are sometimes diagnosed with _______ ________, also called __________ ____________ ___________.

Asperger syndrome;high-functioning autism

Most children with autisitic spectrum disorder show signs in early __________. One such sign is _______________. Late onset of autism occurs
with _________ ______, in which a newborn girl seems fine, but her brain develps more slowly than normal. Today, ________(more/fewer)children have autistic spectrum disorder than in the past. This may be the result of an increase in the ___________of the disorder, or an increase in the disorder's ____________.

infancy;lack of the social smile; Rett syndrome; more; incidence; diagnosis

Autism has been thought to be caused by ____________, an antiseptic containing mercury that was once used in childhood ___________. Extensive research has ______________(proven/disproven) the immunization hypothesis.

thimerosal;immunizations;disproven

In response to a 1975 act requiring that children with special needs to be taugh in the ________ _________ _____________, the strategy of not separating special-needs children into special classes, called ____________, emerged.Some schools have developed a ______ _______, in which such children spend part of each day with a teaching specialist. In the most recent approach, called __________, learning disable children receive targeted help within the setting of a regular classroom.

least restrictive environment (LRE); mainstreaming; resource room; inclusion

Most recently, according to the strategy called ________ __ ______, all children in early grades in the United States who are below average in ____________are given some special intervention. If professionals find a child has special needs they discuss an __ __ ___with the parents , to specify educatoinal goals for the child.

Response to intervention, achievement, individual education plan (IEP)

Dr. Rutter, who believes that knowledge about normal development can be applied to the study and treatment of psychological disorders, evidently is working from the ________________-____________________perspective.

developmental psychopathology

10 yrs old Clarence is quick-tempered, easily frustrated, and is often disruptive in the classroom. Clarence may be suffering from ________________

ADHD,
Children with ADHD are inattentive, impulsive and overactive

Indetermining whether her 8 yr old student has a learning disability, the teacher looks primarily for

b. the exclusion of other explanations.

Althought 9 yr old Carl has severely impaired social skills, his intelligence and speech are normal. Carl is evidently displaying symptoms of _______________ ___________________.

Asperger syndrome.
Asperger syndrome is referred to as "high-functioning"autism because the person tends to have normal or above-average intelligence, especially in a particular skill.

Jennifer displays inadequate social skills and is extremely self-absorbed. It is likely that she suffers from ______________.

autism

Danny has been diagnosed as having attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Every day, his parents make sure that he takes the proper dose of Ritalin. His parent should . .

c. also make sure that they and Danny's teachers receive training.
Medication alone cannot ameliorate all the problems of ADHD

Progress 1-1) As children move into middle childhood

d. biological growth slows and steadies.

2) Ongoing maturation of which brain area contributes mostly to left-right coordination?

a. corpus callosum

3) The ability to filter out distractions and concentrate on relevant details is called

c. selective attention
Automatization is the process in which repetition of a sequence o fthought and actions makes the sequence routine.
Reaction time is the length of time it takes to respond to a stimulus
Inclusion is an approach in which children with special needs are educated in regular classrooms along with all the other children

Dyslexia is a learning disability that affects ability to

b. read
This text does not give labels for learning disabilitys in writing or speaking.

The developmental psychophathology perspective is characterized by its

a. contextual approach
Contextual approach; developmental psychopathyology emphasizes all domains of development. Also, it points out that behaviors change over time.

The time-usually measured in fractions of a second- it takes for a person to respond to a particular stimulus is called

b. reaction time.

7) the underlying problem in attention-deficit /hyperactivity disorder appears to be

b. a neurological difficulty in paying attention

Healthy 6 yrs olds tend to have

a. the lowest body mass index of any age-group.

Children who have autistic spectrum disorder have severe deficiencies in ______

d. play (social play)

10) although asthma has genetic origins, several environmental factors contribute to its onset, including ---

d. urbanization, airtight windows, dogs and cats living inside the house.

11) Psychoactive drugs are most effective in treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder when they are administered

d. by trained parents and teachers.

12) Tests that measure a child's potential to learn a new subject are called __________ tests.

a. aptitude
-achievement tests measure what has already been learned.
-Vocational tests, which as their name implies, measure what a person has leaned about a particular trade, are achievement tests
-Intelligence tests measure general aptitude, rather than aptitude for a specific subject

In the ealiest aptitude tests, a child's score was calculated by dividing the child's _____age by his or her ______age to find the _____quotient.

a. mental; chronlogical; intelligence

14) Selective attention refers to the ability to

a. choose which of many stimuli to concentrate on

15) Ongoing maturation of which brain area enable school children to more effectively analyze the potential consequences of their actions?

b. prefrontal cortex
-Maturation of the corpus callosum contributes to left-right coordination
-Brain stem and temporal lobe were not discussed in this chapter, play important roles in regulating sleep-waking cycles (brain stem medulla oblongata) and hearing and lanuage abilities (temporal lobe).

1) True or False:The rate of growth in school-age children continues at a rapid pace.

F
The rate of growth slows down during middle childhood.

2) Genes and hereditary differences in taste preferences are the most important factors in promoting childhood obesity.

F
Environmental factors are more important in promoting obesity during middle childhood

3) Childhood obesity increase the risk for serious health problems in adulthood.

T

The quick reaction time that is crucial in some sports can be readily achieved with practice.

F
Reaction time depends on brain maturation and is not readily affected by practice

The intellectual performance of children with Asperger syndrome is poor in all areas.

F
Children with Asperger syndrome show isolated areas of remarkable skill

The incidence of children with autisitic characteristics is decreasing.

F
Just the opposite is true, possibly because of better diagnoses

7) Despite the efforts of teachers and parents, most children with learning disabilities can expect their disabilities to persist and even worsen as they enter adulthood

F
Some children find ways to compensate for their deficiencies, and others are taught effective strategies for learning.

8) Stressful living conditions are an important consideration in diagnosing a learning disability.

F
Stressful living conditions must be excluded beore diagnosing a learning disability.

9) Stimulant medication often helps children with ADHD to learn.

T

10) Mainstreaming along with use of a resource room is the most effective educational method for children with special needs

F
Mainstreaming did not meet all children's educational needs

Progess Test 2: 1) During the years from 7 to 11, the average child

a. develops stronger muscles
-Although childhood obesity is a common probablem,the text does not indicate that a person is more likely to become obese at this age than at any other

2) Comorbid refers to the presence of

a. two or more unrelated disease conditions in the same person.

3) A specific learning disability that becomes apparent when a child experiences unusual difficulty in a learning to read it

a. dyslexia

4) Marked delays in particular areas of learning are collectively referrred to as:

a. learning disabilites
-ADHD is a disorder that ususally does not manifest itself in specific subject areas. Hyperactivity is a facet of this disorder.
Dyslexia is a learning disability in reading.

5) Aptitude and achievement testing are controversial in part because

b. most tests are unreliable with respect to the individual scores they yield.

6) The most effective form of help for children with ADHD is

a. stimulant medication. (ie. ritalen)

7) A key factor in reaction time is

b. brain maturation

8) One of the first noticeable symptoms of autism is usually

b. abnormal social responsiveness

9) Which of the following is true of children with diagnosed learning disability?

a. They often feel inadequate, ashamed, and stupid

More important in the automation of children's thought and actions

a. the continuing myelination of neurons.

11) Which approach to education may best meet the needs of learning-disabled children in terms of both skill remediation and social interaction with other children?
a) mainstreaming
b) special education
c) response to intervention
d)resource rooms

c. response to intervention
Many general education teachers are unable to cope with the special needs of some children.

12)Aperger syndrome is a disorder in which

b body weight fluctuates dramatically over short periods of time.

13) Which of the following is NOT evidence of ADHD
a) inattentiveness
b. poor language skills
c. impulsivity
d. overreactivity

b. poor language skills

14) Tests that measure what a child has already learned are called ________tests.

c. achievement

15) Which of the following is NOT a type of intelligence identified in Robert Sternberg's theory?

c. achievement

Matching: 1) dyslexia

k. difficulty in reading

automatization

d. process by which thoughts and actions become routine and no longer require much thought.

Asperger syndrome

a. set of symptoms in which a child has impaired social skills despite having normal speech and intelligence.

attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

h. behavior problem involving difficulty in concentrating, as well as excitablity and impulsivity.

asthma

g. chronic inflammation of the airways.
(it can be inflammation or bronchial muscle contration)

6) Flynn Effect

b. the rise in IQ core averages that has occurred in many nations.

autism

f. disorder characterized by self-absorption

8) developmental psychopathology

i. applies insights from studies of normal development to the study of childhood disorders.

9) response to intervention

c. strategy in which all children who are below average in achievement receive an intervention

10) learning disability

j an unexpected difficulty with one or more academic sills

11) mainstreaming

e.system in which learning-disabed children are taught in general education classrooms.

12) bipolar disorder

l. condition involving extreme mood swings.

Key Terms 1) middle childhood

is the period from early childhood to adolescence, roughly 6 to 11

2. BMI

is a person's weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters

3. overweight

A child whose BMI falls above the 85% for children of a given age is designated as overweight 95% is obese.

4. obesity

A child whose BMI above the 95th percentile for children of a give age.

5. asthma

Asthma is a chronic disorder in which the airways are inflame, making breathing difficult.

6. reaction time

is the length of time it takes a person to respond to a stimulus, either physically or cognitively.

7. selective attention

is the ability to concentrate on one stimulus while ignoring others - husbands infront of TV (lol)

8. automatization

is the process by which thoughts and actions that are repeated often enough to become routine no longer require much conscious thought.

9. aptitude

is the potential to master a specific skill or learn a certain body of knowledge.

10) IQ test

are aptitude tests, which were originally designed to yield a measure of intelligence and originally calculated as mental age divided by chronological age, multiplied by 100.

11. achievement test

measure what a child has already learned in a partiular academic subject or subjects

12) Flynn Effect

refers to the rise in average IQ scores that has occurred over the decade in many nations.

13) multiple intelligences

is the idea that human intelligence is comprised of many varied abilities rather than a single, all-encompassing one.

14) developmental psychopathology

is a field that applies the insights into typical development to understand and remedial developmental disorders, and vice versa.

15) comorbid

Comorbid refers to the presence of two or more unrelated disease conditions at the same time in the same person.

16) ADHD -- now is known as ADD only in field

ADHD is behavior problem in which the idividual has geat difficulty concentrating and is often inattentive, impulsive, and overactive.

17) bipolar disorder

Bipolar disorder is a condition characterized by extreme mood swings, from euphoria to deep depression

18) learning disability

is a marked delay in a particular area of learning that is not attributable to overall intellectual slowness, a physical disability, or an unusually stresssful home environment.

19) dyslexia

Dyslexia is a learning disability in ready.
(the way the brain processing information visually and received different)

20) autism

is severe disturbance of early childhood characterized by an inability to communicate with others in an ordinary way, by extreme self-absorption, and by an inability to learn normal speech

21) autistic spectrum disorder

is any several disorders characterized by deficient social skills, impaired communication, and unusual play.

22) least restrictive environment (LRE)

is legally required school setting that offers special-needs children as much freedom as possible to benefit from the instruction available to other children.

23) response to intervention

is an educational strategy in which all children in early grades who are below average in achievement are given some special intervention.

24) individual education plan (IEP)

is a legal document that specifies a set of educational goals for a child with special needs.

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