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Crest

the high point of a wave

Trough

the lowest part of a wave

Amplitude

(physics) the maximum displacement of a periodic wave

Wavelength

the distance (measured in the direction of propagation) between two points in the same phase in consecutive cycles of a wave

Frequency

the number of occurrences within a given time period (usually 1 second)

Hertz

the unit of frequency

Transverse Wave

a wave that moves the medium in a direction perpendicular to the direction in which the wave travels

Longitudinal Wave

A wave in which the vibration is in the same direction as that in which the wave is traveling

Interference Pattern

A pattern formed by the overlapping of two or more waves that arrive in a region at the same time.

Constructive Interference

the interference that occurs when two waves combine to make a wave with a larger amplitude

Destructive Interference

Addition of two waves when the crest of one overlaps the trough of another, so that their individual effects cancel each other.

Out of Phase

The crests of one wave overlap the troughs of another to produce regions of zero amplitude

In Phase

when the peaks and troughs of a pair of waves occur at the same time and in the same location

Standing Wave

a wave pattern that results when two waves of the same frequency, wavelength, and amplitude travel in opposite directions and interfere

Node

Point of minimum displacement in a standing wave.

Anti-node

Point of maximum displacement in a standing wave.

Doppler Effect

change in the apparent frequency of a wave as observer and source move toward or away from each other

Blue Shift

motion induced shift in light wavelength due to objects moving closer to the observer

Red Shift

the change in the wavelength of light due to an object moving away from the observer.

Bow Wave

The V-shaped wave produced by an object moving on a liquid surface faster than the wave speed.

Shock Wave

The cone-shaped disturbance created by an object moving at supersonic speed.

Sonic Boom

an explosive sound caused by the shock wave of an something traveling faster than the speed of sound

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