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PSY 100 Exam 4 Chapter 13

Psychoanalysis

- Technique used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions
- Attributes to thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts
- Used to seek to expose and interpret unconscious tensions
- The roll of repressed childhood conflicts in personality disorders is mostly clearly emphasized by the psychoanalytic perspective

Free association

- method of exploring the unconscious having a patient relax and say whatever comes to mind, no matter how embarrassing or random it is
- Would allow Freud to lead into a path of the unconscious, where painful memories, often from childhood, could be retrieved and released

The unconscious

- contains thoughts, wishes, feelings and memories
- Freud thought sometimes these feelings can powerfully influence us, gaining expression in disguised forms
- Freud thought that the part of a dream that we remember is a censored version of unconscious wishes

Id

the energy that constantly strives to satisfy basic drives to survive, reproduce, and aggress
- Operates on a pleasure principle - demanding immediate gratification
- Strives to satisfy the basic sexual and aggressive drives
- *EX: newborn baby crying for satisfaction, not caring about outside world conditions and demands

Ego

operates on the reality principal; satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain
- "Executive" part of personality that mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality
- *EX: Jayden doesn't realize that his alcohol abuse and neglect of his family is leading to the destruction of both his family and career. A psychoanalyst would just that Jayden shows signs of a weak ego

Superego

voice of our moral compass that forces the ego to consider not only the real but also the ideal
- Focuses on how we ought to behave, strives for perfection, judges actions and produces positive feelings of pride or negative feelings of guilt
- Represents internalized ideals and provide standards for judgment and for future aspirations
- *EX: Although Alex has frequently been caught stealing money and other valuables from friends as well as strangers; he does not feel guilty or remorseful about robbing these people. Alex most clearly demonstrates a weak super ego

Psychosexual stages

- childhood states of development according to Freud during which the ids pleasure seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones
- Oral (0-18 months) - pleasure centers on mouth - sucking, biting, chewing
o *EX: Freud suggested that adults with a passive personality marked by a childlike dependency demonstrate signs of an oral fixation
- Anal (18-36 months) - pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination; coping with demands for control
- Phallic (3-6 years) - pleasure zones is the genitals; coping with incestuous sexual feelings
- Latency (6 - puberty) - dormant sexual feelings
- Genital (puberty on) - maturing of sexual interests

Oedipus complex

according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his moth and feelings of jealously and hatred for the rival father
- *EX: According to psychoanalytic theory, boys' fear of castration is most clearly associated with the Oedipus complex

identification

process by which children incorporate their parents values into these developing superegos

Fixate/fixation

- a lingering focus of pleasure seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved

Defense mechanisms -

Repression, Regression, Reaction formation, Projection, rationalization, displacement, denial

- Repression

- banishes anxiety-arousing wishes, thoughts, feelings and memories from consciousness
o Explains why we do not remember our childhood lust for our parent of the other sex
o Often incomplete, with repressed urges seeping out in dream symbols and lips of the tongue
• *EX: children who have witnessed a parent's murder report memories that most clearly challenge Freud's concept of repression

- Regression

allows us to retreat to an earlier, more infantile state of development when we feel faced with anxiety
o Facing first days of school, a child may regress to the oral comfort of thumb sucking
o Young monkeys retreat to infant like clinging to their mothers or to one another
o Even homesick new college students may long for the security and comfort of home

- Reaction formation

- ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites
o People may express feelings that are opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings
o "I hate him becomes I love him" - feeling of inadequacy become bravado
o *EX: Bryce often acts so daring and overly confident that few people realize he is actually riddled with unconscious insecurity and self-doubt. Bryce best illustrates the use of a defense mechanism known as reaction formation

- Projection

disguises threatening impulses by attributing them to others
o "He doesn't trust me" may be a projection for the actual feeling "I don't trust him" or "I don't trust myself"
o "The thief thinks everyone else is the thief"

- Rationalization

- offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions
o When we generate self-justifying explanations to hide from ourselves the real reasons for our actions
o Drinkers may say they drink with their friends "just to be sociable"
o Students who fail to study may rationalize "all work and no play makes us dull people"

- Displacement

diverts sexual or aggressive impulses toward an object or person that is psychologically more acceptable than the one that aroused the feelings
o As when directing anger toward a safer outlet
o Children who are angry with their parents may displace their anger towards kicking the family pet
o Students upset over an exam may snap at a roommate

- Denial

- protects us from real events that are painful to accept, either by rejecting a fact or its seriousness
o Dying patients may deny the gravity of their illness
o Parents may deny their child's misconduct
o Spouses may deny evidence of their partner's affair

Collective unconscious

Carl Jung emphasized the importance of the collective unconscious in personality functioning
o Jung said that the collective unconscious explains why, for many people, spiritual concerns are deeply rooted and why people In different cultures share certain myths and images, such as mother as a symbol of nurturance

Projective test

personality test that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics
- Asks test takers to describe an ambiguous stimulus or tell a story about it
- *EX: Herman Rorschach introduced what has become the most widely used projective test

Rorschach inkblot test

(most widely used) in which people describe what they see in a series of inkblots
- Set of 10 inkblots
- Seeks to identify peoples inner feelings by analyzing their interpretation of the blots

TAT (Thematic Apperception Test)-

(introduced by Henry Murray) - in which people view ambiguous pictures an then make up stories about the
- People express inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes

psychoanalytic perspective

- The roll of repressed childhood conflicts in personality disorders is mostly clearly emphasized by the psychoanalytic perspective
- They doubt that Infants' neural networks are mature enough to sustain as much emotional trauma as Freud assumed
- Overestimated parental influence and underestimated peer influence
- Doubt that conscience and gender identity form as the child resolves the Oedipus complex at age 5 or 6.
- Many contend that repression, if it ever occurs, is a rare mental response to terrible trauma
- Some researchers believe that extreme, prolonged stress, such as the stress some severely abused children experience, might disrupt memory by damaging the hippocampus
- The schemas that automatically control our perceptions and interpretations
- The priming by stimuli to which we have not consciously attended

Self -actualization

(purpose of fulfilling our potential) according to Maslow, one of the ultimate psychological needs that arises after basic physicals and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential
- *EX: Abraham Maslow suggested that individuals who are open, spontaneous, and not paralyzed by others opinions illustrate self actualization

Self-transcendence

(meaning, purpose, and communion beyond the self)
- *EX: According to Maslow, the desire for identity, meaning, and purpose beyond the self refers to the motive for self-transcendence

Conditional positive regard

the acceptance and support of a person given that they meet the assumed conditions.

Unconditional positive regard

according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person
- An attitude of grace, an attitude that values us even knowing our fallings
- Drop pretenses, confess our worst feelings, and discover that we are still accepted
- Free to be spontaneous without fearing the loss of others esteem
- *EX: Roger emphasized the importance of unconditional positive regard in healthy personality development

Self-concept

- all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question "Who am I?"
- If it is positive, we tend to act and perceive the world positively
- If negative - in our eyes we fall far short of our ideal self - we feel dissatisfied and unhappy
- *EX: Humanistic psychology has been most clearly associated with an emphasis on the importance of a positive self-concept

the role of biology in trait theories

- Brain-activity scans of extraverts add to the growing list of traits and mental states that have been explored with brain-imaging procedures.
- Such studies indicate that extraverts seek stimulation because their normal brain arousal is relatively low
-PET scans show that a frontal lobe area involved In behavior Inhibition Is less active In extraverts than In introverts
-The fearless, curious child may become the rock-climbing or fast-driving adult.
-Given a reactive autonomic nervous system, we respond to stress with greater anxiety and Inhibition.
*EX: the stability of personality during adulthood best illustrates the value of the trait perspective

-Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)

most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests
- Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (most appropriate use) test is now used for many other screening purposes
- *EX: The MMPI was originally developed to identify

the Big-5 model of personality

Conscientiousness , Agreeableness, Neuroticism, openness, extraversion

Conscientiousness ,

- Organized ←-----→ disorganized
- Careful ←-----→ careless
- Disciplined ←-----→ impulsive

-Agreeableness

- Soft-hearted ruthless
- Trusting ←-----→ suspicious
- Helpful ←-----→ uncooperative

-Neuroticism

- Calm ←-----→ anxious
- Secure ←-----→ insecure
- Self-satisfied ←-----→ self-pitying

Openness

- Imaginative ←-----→ practical
- Preference for variety ←-----→ preference for routine
- Independent ←-----→ conforming

Extraversion

- Sociable ←-----→ retiring
- Fun-loving ←-----→ sober
- Affectionate ←-----→ reserved

descriptions from the Big-5 model of personality

*EX: during a phone call to the Psychic Network, Mark was told that "you often worry about things much more than you admit, even to your best friends." Mark 's amazement at the psychic's apparent understanding of his personality best illustrates the Barnum effect

*EX: factor analysis would psychologist use to asses whether a cluster of characteristic that include ambition, determination, persistence, and self-reliance reflects a single personality trait

Reciprocal determinism

- the interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition and environment
- *EX: Sarah's optimism is both a contributor to and a product of her successful career accomplishments, best illustrating reciprocal determinism

Social-cognitive perspective

views behavior as influenced by the interaction between people's traits (including their thinking) and their social context
- Views behavior as influenced by the interaction between persons (and their thinking) and their social context
- *EX: the social-cognitive perspective highlights the importance of personal traits and environment, a process that Albert Bandura called reciprocal determinism

Personal control

the extent to which people perceive control over their environment rather than feeling helpless

External locus control

the perception that change or outside forces beyond your personal control determine your fate
- *EX: Marcy believes that the outcome of athletic contests depends so much on luck that it hardly plays to put any effort into her own athletic training. Her belied most clearly illustrate an external locus of control

Internal locus of control

the perception that change or outside forces beyond your personal control determine your fate
- *EX: Marcy believes that the outcome of athletic contests depends so much on luck that it hardly plays to put any effort into her own athletic training. Her belied most clearly illustrate an external locus of control

Internal locus of control

the perception that you control your own fate

Learned helplessness

- the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events
- *EX: After experiencing prolonged and seemingly inescapable physical abuse from her husband, Kayla became increasingly depressed and hopeless resigned to her suffering. Her reaction best illustrates learned hopelessness

One: correlate people's feelings of control with their behaviors and achievements. Two: experiment, by raising or lowering people's sense of control and noting the effects.

Spotlight effect

overestimating others noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders (as if we presume a spotlight shines on us)
- *EX: when Vanessa noticed that she was wearing mismatched socks, she overestimated the extent to which others would also notice. Her reaction best illustrates the spotlight

Self-esteem

- one's feelings of high or low self-worth
- High self-esteem a feeling of self worth
- Feel good about yourself and you benefit

Self-serving bias

a readiness to perceive oneself favorably
- *EX: Card players who attribute their wins to their own skill and their losses to bad luck illustrate self serving bias

*EX: Although she is intelligent and a good athlete, Abigail believes at her low grades in school and losing the quarter-mile race are reflections of her own intellectual and athletic incompetence. Her conclusion best illustrates

a pessimistic attributional style

*EX: We can better predict driver's behavior at traffic lights from knowing the color of the lights than from knowing the drivers personalities. This best illustrates the importance of

social influences

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