typical dietary sources of carbs include all of the except
milk that has been treated with a commercially available lactase preparation undergoes with of the following changes
increase in sweetness
What is the reaction that links two monosaccharides together?
which of the following is a byproduct of the condensation of two molecules of glucose
the chemical reaction by which starch is split into monosaccharides is termed
the chief carb in the beet sugar is
what is the composition of sucrose
one glucose and one fructose unit
what is the composition of maltose
two glucose molecules
which of the following is a component of all three dietary disaccharides
what is the composite of lactose
one glucose and one galactose unit
what is the principle carb of milk?
another name for lactose
which of the sugars is not found in plants
what is the name of the animal polysaccharide composed of glucose units?
glycogen is stored in which tissue?
muscle and liver
which of the following is a feature of glycogen
it is virtually absent from animal meats
primary storage form of carbs in the body
NOT a rich source of dietary starch
staple grain of Canada, the U.S. and Europe
the predominant grain product in much of South and Central America
what are cellulose, pectin, hemicellulose, and lingin?
which is described as a nonstarch polysaccharide
which is an example of the difference between the chemical bonds in starch and those in cellulose?
cellulose bonds are not hydrolyzed by human enzymes
feature of pectins
used to thicken jelly
not characteristic of fibers
an example of nonpolyssacharide fiber is hemicellulose
one that is extracted from plants and has a beneficial health effect
which plays a major role in the breakdown of certain types of dietary fiber in the large intestine?
characteristic of dietary fiber
they are classified according to solubility in water
with few exceptions, all of the following characteristics are shared by water-soluble and water-insoluble fiber except:
neither has an appreciable effect on glucose absorption
what type of fiber is readily digested by colonic bacteria?
common source of resistant starch
a feature of resistant starch
it resists hydrolysis by digestive enzymes
characteristic of dietary phytic acid include all of the following except:
it is classified as a fiber
describes the compound of phytic acid
nonnutrient component of plant seeds
which of the following fibers is water insoluble
water-solube fibers include all except
contains the least amount of fiber
enzymatic digestion of starches takes place in the small intestine and also in the:
all of the following are properties of fiber except:
it elevates blood glucose levels
what is the name of the short chains of glucose units that result from starch breakdown?
which enzyme does not act on simple sugars?
what is the primary absorption site for digestible carbs
after you and your friend Dolores share pretzels and animal crackers, she announces that she wants to start digesting her food by watching TV. You inform Dolores that:
carb digestion beings in the mouth through the action of amylase, so she has already begun digesting the snacks
the enzymes that digest dietary sugars are produced by the
what is the primary organ that converts fructose to glucose following absorption
what is the first organ the receive carbs absorbed from the intestine
all the following are symptoms of lactose intolerance except
percentage of the world's adult population shows good tolerance to lactose ingestion
least likely be connected with the development of lactose intolerance
a person diagnosed with milk allergy would be sensitive to the milks
for most of the worlds population, what is the effect of aging on the activity of lactase?
declines by 90-95%
which of the following is a characteristic of yogurt?
bacteria in yogurt produce lactase
what is the chief reason that many people with lactose intolerance can consume foods containing some lactose without suffering any symptoms
a change occurs in the GI bacteria
which of the following is a feature of kefir
it contains live bacterial organisms
among the following foods, which contain the lowest amount of lactose per serving
why are hard cheeses lower in lactose than soft cheeses?
more lactose is removed during manufacturing
feature of lactose?
used as a filler in one out of five prescription drugs
which provides the least amount of lactose per serving
among the following population groups, which shows the highest prevalence of lactose
Which of the following ingredients listed on food labels would be acceptable to the person who is highly intolerant to lactose in the diet?
if you were to exercise continuously, about how long would glycogen stores last?
a few hours
what fraction of the body's total glycogen content is found in the liver
in what organ is most of the body's glycogen found?
at rest, the typical body stores of glycogen can provide energy for a maximum of about
what is the minimum daily amount of dietary carbs necessary to spare body protein from excessive breakdown
what is the primary function of insulin?
lowers blood glucose levels
the process by which an amino acid is used to make glucose is termed
gluconeogenesis is the term that describes the synthesis of
glucose from a noncarbohydrate substance
which of the following values falls within the normal range (mg/dL) of blood glucose?
you have just finished a light breakfast of toast and jelly, Which of the following series of events proceeds upon digestion/absorption of the meal until it is near time for lunch?
blood glucose rises, the pancreas releases insulin, glucose is taken up by the cells through the action of insulin, blood glucose levels decline
first organ to respond to an increase in blood glucose concentration
normal range (mg/dL) for blood glucose?
when blood glucose concentration falls, what pancreatic hormone is secreted to stimulate release of stored glucose?
which of the following is a typical response of the body to changes in blood glucose
blood glucose levels that fall too low signal the release of glucagon
following blood glucose concentration (mg/dL) is most consistent with hypoglycemia
when you are under physical stress, what hormone is released quickly to stimulate an increase in blood glucose concentration
in the time between meals, what organ releases glucose to help maintain normal blood glucose levels
a person fasting with a blood glucose concentration of 129 would be considered
what glycemic index category would include yogurt and cheese?
a person eating lots of white bread, white rice, and ready to eat cereals would have a diet with a glycemic index that is
which of the following is a feature of the condition hypoglycemia?
it occurs rarely in otherwise healthy people
which of the following is a feature of diabetes
dietary management should focus on total carb intake rather than the type of carb consumed
what term describes how quickly glucose is absorbed from a food after ingestion, how high blood glucose rises as a result, and how quickly blood glucose returns to normal
a 101 mg/dL blood glucose level would be considered
which of the following are characteristic of the conditions diabetes and hypoglycemia?
both benefit from the inclusion of fiber-rich foods and consumption of smaller, more frequent meals
your nephew Jimmy, who is 10 years old, has been giving himself a shot in the thigh every day for the past year. He confides in you that he craves candy but was told by his parents that he can only eat sugar free snacks. From which of the following conditions does Jimmy most likely suffer
Type 1 diabetes
which of the following is a feature of diabetes
many people with type 2 are obese
which of the following statements describes the glycemic index of foods
a way of ranking foods according to their potential to increase blood glucose
in a person with type 2 diabetes, which of the following foods would ordinarily promote the least favorable glycemic effect?
what is the name of the sweetener consisting of a mixture of glucose and fructose formed by chemical hydrolysis of sucrose
what is the predominant sweetener used in formulating beverages?
high fructose corn syrup
more kCalories per teaspoon than sucrose
which of the following sweeteners contain a significant amount of calcium
all of the following are features of honey except
it is the preferred sweetener in infant foods
which of the following is best known to result from regular ingestion of sugar?
which of the following recommendations will help to reduce the incidence of dental caries when the diet contains sugary foods
eat a sugar snack all at one time, rather than in parts through out the day
which of the following describes a relationship between carb intake and dental health?
eating a sugary dessert at the beginning of a meal, rather than the end is less likely to promote dental caries
approximately how pounds of added sugars are consumed by the average US resident each year?
You have just arrived at a lunch buffet and are faced with many choices. Although each of the following portions provides about 200 kcalories, which is the most nutrient dense?
3 slices of whole wheat bread
approximately how many kcalories are provided by two teaspoons of sugar?
based on height, weight, age, and physical activity level, you have calculated that you should be consuming about 2,200 kcaloreis per day. which of the following portions is closest to the discretionary kcalories allowed in the USDA food guide for added sugars in your diet?
10 teaspoons of brown sugar
according to the current dietary recommendations, what is the maximum percentage of total energy intake that added sugar should contribute in the diet?
all of the following are features of artificial sweeteners except:
they provide about 1/2 the energy of carbs plus small amounts of vitamins and minerals
what is Stevia?
an herb derived sweetener
which of the following artificial sweeteners has a composition similar to aspartame
All of the following components are apart of the chemical structure of aspartame except
among the following approved sweeteners, which has the highest relative sweetness?
among the alternative sweeteners available in the US, which has a structure that integrates chlorine atoms?
which of the following is a characteristic of the sugar replacers (sugar alcohols)
they have a low glycemic index
which of the following is not a classification for the food additives mannitol, sorbitol, and xylitol
which of the following is a characteristic of the sugar alcohols
they provide kcalories
when consumed in excess, which of the following is most likely to lead to diarrhea
which is a general feature of the sugar alcohol
cannot be metabolized by cariogenic bacteria
what is the approximate energy content (kcals/gram) of most sugar alcohols
which of the following is known to correlate most strongly with reduced risk of deaths from heart disease
all of the following foods are rich sources of soluble fiber except
not a feature of high fiber foods
provide more energy per gram than processed foods
modifying a diet that by substituting complex carbs for pure sugars results in a diet that is higher in:
NOT a characteristic of a high fiber diet
reduce risk of lung cancer, but increase risk of breast cancer
according to most dietary guidelines, what percent of the days total energy intake should be furnished by carbs
what is the RDA for carbs
Allan is 20 years old and asks for help in selecting a fiber rich diet, after he ranks the kinds of foods he likes to eat, you provide him with a list of food items consisting of
1 cup bake beans, 1 medium apple, 1 banana, 1 1/2 cups oatmeal, 1 ounce of 100% bran cereal, and 1/2 of chopped carrots
according to the american dietetic association, what is the daily value for fiber when expressed in grams per 1000 kcal
11.5 grams/1000 kcals
about how many grams of carbs are contained in one ounce of foods in the grain group
what is the DRI for fiber for a person consuming 2500 kcals
which provides the most fiber?
1 cup of split peas
all of the following provide about 15 grams of carbs per serving except:
1/2 cup of green beans
what is a feature of dairy products and carbs?
most cheeses provides little, if any carbs
which of the following is a typical response in people following a low carb diet?
total weight lose after one year is the same as people on conventional diets
which is not associated with the regular consumption of sugary beverages?
the fructose stimulates excessive release of insulin, which suppresses appetite
what % of the lipids in foods are triglycerides?
in which form are most dietary lipids found?
what % of stored body fat is in the form of triglycerides?
lipids that are solid at room temp are known as
lipids that are liquid at room temp are known as
what is the chemical composition of fats
glycerol and fatty acids
a compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen with three fatty acids attached to a molecule of glycerol, would be known as:
what compound is composed of three fatty acids and glycerol?
how many double bonds are present in stearic acid
what is a property of dietary lipids?
omage-3-fatty acids are always unsaturated
what is the simplest 18 carbon fatty acid
which represents a chief source of short and medium chain fatty acids?
how many hydrogen atoms are attached to each carbon adjacent to a double bond
what is the simplest fatty acid found in the diet?
lipids differ in their degree of saturation or unsaturation due to their number of
which of the following is a common dietary saturated fatty acid?
how many carbons are contained in a medium chain fatty acid
which is a common source of medium chain fatty acids
which describes a fatty acid that has one double bond
which compound is missing four or more hydrogen atoms
polyunsaturated fatty acids
polyunsaturated fatty acid in foods
a person wishing to increase consumption of polyunsaturated fats should choose
an omega-3 fatty acid has its first double bond on the
3rd carbon from the methyl end
what is a triacylglyceride
easiest way to increase intake of oleic acid is to consume more
a triglyceride always contains 3:
which is a feature of polyunsaturated fats
low melting point
which is known as a tropical oil
which is a factor that determines the hardness of a fat at a given temp
degree of saturation
which is a source that would yield the softest lipids at room temp
major cause of rancidity of lipids in foods is exposure to
heat and oxygen
which of the following structural features of fatty acids determines their susceptibility to spoilage by oxygen?
number of double bonds
which of the following is a characteristic of lipids?
corn oil and sunflower oil are more prone to spoilage than palm kernel oil
when stored at room temp in loosely capped containers, which of the following dietary lipids would turn rancid in the shortest time?
which would be least effective at preventing oxidation of the polyunsaturated fatty acids in processed foods?
addition of phosphorus
methods used by food processors to stabilize the lipids in the food products include all except:
addition of oxidizing chemicals
characteristics of hydrogenated oils include all except
products containing them become rancid sooner, contributing to a shorter shelf life
has the highest percentage of its fat in saturated form:
highest percent of its fat in polyunsaturated form?
which of the characteristics is shared by olive oil and canola oil?
both contain high levels of monounsaturated fatty acids
provides abundant amounts of omega 3 fatty acids
the food industry often carries out the process of the hydrogenation on which of the following lipids
considered a major source of polyunsaturated fat
with lipids contain saturated fat?
butter, cottonseed oil, and soybean oil
rich sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids
process of fat hydrogenation, hydrogen atoms are added to which part of the molecule
conjugated linoleic acid
a fatty acid with the chemical make-up of linoleic acid but with a different configuration
oil that is partially hydrogenated sometimes changes one or more of its double bond configurations from
cis to trans
which of the following is descriptive of fatty acid configuration?
naturally occurring trans-fatty acids are found in dairy products
describes a feature of cis-fatty acids and trans fatty acids
in the body, trans-fatty acids are metabolized more like saturated fats than like unsaturated fats
feature of a phospholipid
soluble in both water and fat
the composition of lecithin could include all the following except
what type of compound is lecithin
what is the usual fate of dietary lecithin?
hydrolyzed by the intestinal enzyme lecithinase
feature of choline
part of lecithin
a characteristic of lecithin supplements is they:
are mostly hydrolyzed in the intestine
not a feature of lecithin
dietary supplements inhibit fat absorption
how much energy is contributed by one gram of lecithin in a dietary supplement?
approximate energy value of one teaspoon of liquid lecithin supplement?
which of the characteristics are shared by cholesterol and lecithin?
both are synthesized in the body
each of the following may act as an emulsifier in the intestinal tract except:
major sterol in the diet
how much cholesterol is synthesized by the liver every day
less than 300 mg
food contains cholesterol
major source of good cholesterol
common feature of plant sterols is they
inhibit absorption of dietary cholesterol
cannot be found in plants
features of cholesterol
synthesized by the body, about 10% of the body's total cholesterol is extracellular, its daily value is 300 mg, precursor for bile and vitamin D synthesis
compounds that may be synthesized from cholesterol except:
not a destination for cholesterol
accumulates on the cell walls of veins
term that is used to describe a substance that is hydrophobic?
characteristic of the lipase enzyme
salivary gland lipase (lingual lipase) plays an active role in fat digestion in infants
not a feature of bile acids
manufactured by the gallbladder
in the digestion of fats, emulsifiers function as
what part of the GI tract is the predominant site of dietary fat hydrolysis
chylomicrons are synthesized within the
how is soluble fiber in the diet thought to help lower blood cholesterol level?
it enhances excretion of bile leading to increased cholesterol turnover
bile is known to assist in the absorption of
storage site of bile
spherical complexes of emulsified fats are known as
substance cannot be absorbed directly into the blood
long-chain fatty acids
after a meal, most of the fat that eventually empties into the blood is in the form of particles known as
your aunt gladys
oatmeal is high in soluble fibers that trap bile, causing the body to use more cholesterol for bile replacement
example of enterohepatic circulation
recycling of bile form the intestine to the liver
lipoprotein largest in size?
in comparison to a low density lipoprotein, a high density lipoprotein contains
which lipoproteins contains the highest percentage of cholesterol
which would be least effective method to control blood cholesterol levels
eat more insoluble fiber
tissue contains special receptors for removing low density lipoproteins from the circulation
high risk of heart attack correlated with high blood levels of
low density lipoproteins
what lipoprotein is responsible for transporting cholesterol back to the liver from the periphery
high density lipoproteins
a low risk of cardiovascular disease correlates with high blood levels of
an important function of fat int he body is to
protect vital organs against shock
lipid that is an essential nutrient
used by the body to synthesize arachidonic acid
omega 3 fat
building blocks of body synthesis and elongation of fatty acids
two carbon fragments
immediate precursor for the eicosanoids
aspirin works to reduce symptoms of infection or pain by retarding the synthesis of
foods provide essential fatty acids
fish, beef, plants
precursors for synthesis of eicosanoids
long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids
feature of adipose cells lipoprotein lipase
the enzyme works to promote uptake of circulating triglycerides into storage triglycerides
function of lipoprotein lipase
hydrolyzes blood triglycerides for uptake into cells
feature of fat metabolism
triglycerides in the blood must first be broken down to monoglycerides, fatty acids and glycerol primer to uptake by the adipose cells
nutrient used to form ketones
function of adipose cell hormone-sensitive lipase
hydrolyzes triglycerides to provide fatty acids for other cells
what % of body's energy needs at rest is supplied by fat
highest total blood cholesterol concentration (mg/dL) that falls within a desirable range
what is the highest blood triglyceride concentration that falls within the desirable range
following dietary fatty acids the have been found the raise blood cholesterol level by the least amount
results of blood tests that reveal a persons total cholesterol and triglycerides are called a
each is known to be linked to excessive intake of fats except
important factors in the selection of margarine product include all of the following except
it should contain primarily omega-3 fatty acids
low HDL and high LDL
following sources of lipids should be substituted for saturated fats to help lower blood cholesterol levels
characteristic of egg nutrition
although it is high in cholesterol, the egg is low in saturated fat
Jeff switches from corn oil to source of omega 3 fats which is
a feature of fat intake and health
intake of saturated fat raises blood cholesterol more than the intake of cholesterol
characteristic of the blood cholesterol level
it can be lowered more effectively by reducing dietary intake of saturated fat than of cholesterol
daily trans-fatty acid intake in the US
which has least cholesterol per serving
major sources of cholesterol include all except
fatty acids that help prevent the formation of blood clots
the eicosapentaenoic acid
how many milligrams of cholesterol are in egg
characteristic of eggs in nutrition
consumption of one egg per day by most people is not considered detrimental
vegetable oil that is a good source of omega 3 fatty acids
characteristics of lipid intake of US adults except
trans fatty acid averages about 1 gram per day
feature of butter and margarine
butter contains more saturated fat and cholesterol than margarine
Ronny: good source of omega 3 fat
% of DV for saturated fats in the US diet is provided by one egg
feature of lipid content of foods
omega 3 fats are found in fish
approximate ratio of omega 6 to omega 3 fatty acids
1.6 : 1.0
lacto-ovo vegetarian wanting liberal intake of linolenic acid should consume
canola oil and walnuts
regularly consuming fish like shark, king mackerel, and sword fish is risk for ingesting potentially toxic amounts of
characteristic of fish consumption
fatty fish contain the highest amounts of omega 3 fatty acids
high intakes of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are known to increase the risk for all except:
inflammation of the pancreas
good source of eicosapentaenoic acid
dietary balance of omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids recommended intake of omega 3 fats for a person who consumes 30 grams of omega 6 fats
no specific recommendation based on omega 6 intake
oils found in walnuts, soybeans, flaxseed and wheat germ are a good source of
foods contain liberal amounts of eicosapentaenoic acids and docosahexaenoic acid except
likely explanation of imbalance between omega 6 and omega 3 lipids in the US diet
high intakes of meat and low intakes of fish
recognized relationship between dietary fat and cancer
fat from milk does not increase risk of cancer
according to DRI, the upper limit of fat that may be consumed by a healthy person requiring 3000 calories per day
according to dietary guidelines what should be the maximum total fat intake as a percentage of energy intake
Jenny: chooses fat free dessert, analysis of her decision
fat free products have so much added sugar that the calorie count can be as high than the regular fat product
for adults recommended minimum amount of fat consumed as a percentage of total energy intake
% of daily energy intake recommended range of essential fatty acids
5.6 to 11.2
according to dietary guidelines, the max daily intake of cholesterol on a 2500 calorie diet should be
how many grams of fat would be contained in 800 k calorie meal that provide 50% of energy from carbs, 20% from protein and the remainder from fat
27 grams of fat
1200 calorie meal contains 10 grams of saturated fats, 14 grams of monounsaturated fats and 20 grams of polyunsaturated fats, what % of energy is supplied by the lipids
US average intake of fat as a percentage of total energy intake is
average daily cholesterol of US women
feature of fat in the diet of athletes
a minimum of 20% fat energy in the diet is needed
NOT a function of fat
supplies up to 25% of the bodies energy needs during rest
most desirable quality that fat adds to foods
features of dairy products consumption except
fat free milk is lower in calories but also lower in protein and calcium than whole milk
characteristic of the lipid content of livestock
(free-range) animals contain more omega 3 fats in the meet than grain feed animals
appropriate dietary advice for reducing fat intake
limit intake of all fried foods because they contain abundant fat
a visible fat would be
John friend college graduation select certain foods, fat replacers olestra
contains a fat like substance that the body's enzymes cannot break down and therefore cannot be absorbed
not a feature of the artificial fat replacers Olestra
it leads to constipation in some individual
sucrose polyester is also
draw back of Olestra consumption
inhibits absorption of vitamin E
feature of Olestra in foods
causes no net loss of fat soluble vitamins from the digestive tract
food labels about fat content per serving include all except
the % of total kcalories contributed by fat
groups with highest and lowest rates of heart disease both consumed at least 40% of calories from fat but the healthy group was found to ingest more
most nuts, the distribution of saturated and unsaturated fats in order of highest to lowest amounts
monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, saturated
feature of nut consumption and improve cardiovascular health
benefit may be related in part to the high content of monounsaturated fats and low content of saturated fats
of the total fat content of most commonly eaten nuts in the US, what is the approximate percentage of monounsaturated fat
regular consumption of fatty fish
leads to lower blood pressure
fish highest in mercury
characteristic of farm raised fish
lower in omega 3 fats
1% increase in dietary saturated fatty acids will raise the risk of heart disease by what percentage
not a common dietary source of trans-fats
good plant source of omega 3 lipids
Mediterranean diet is liberal intake of
ample amounts of carbs are almost always found in
sources of dietary carbs except:
what type of nutrient is a starch
not a simple carb
carbon atoms found in most common dietary monosaccharides
atoms found in a glucose molecule are all except
known as blood sugar or dextrose
accounts for the usually sweet taste of fruits
known as fruit sugar or levulose
NOT characteristic of glucose
it is sweeter tasting than sucrose
sweetest tasting simple carb