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All exam questions and answers from practice exams

typical dietary sources of carbs include all of the except

glycogen

milk that has been treated with a commercially available lactase preparation undergoes with of the following changes

increase in sweetness

What is the reaction that links two monosaccharides together?

condensation

which of the following is a byproduct of the condensation of two molecules of glucose

water

the chemical reaction by which starch is split into monosaccharides is termed

hydrolysis

the chief carb in the beet sugar is

sucrose

what is the composition of sucrose

one glucose and one fructose unit

what is the composition of maltose

two glucose molecules

which of the following is a component of all three dietary disaccharides

glucose

what is the composite of lactose

one glucose and one galactose unit

what is the principle carb of milk?

lactose

another name for lactose

milk sugar

which of the sugars is not found in plants

lactose

what is the name of the animal polysaccharide composed of glucose units?

glycogen

glycogen is stored in which tissue?

muscle and liver

which of the following is a feature of glycogen

it is virtually absent from animal meats

primary storage form of carbs in the body

glycogen

NOT a rich source of dietary starch

fruits

staple grain of Canada, the U.S. and Europe

wheat

the predominant grain product in much of South and Central America

Corn

what are cellulose, pectin, hemicellulose, and lingin?

fibers

which is described as a nonstarch polysaccharide

cellulose

which is an example of the difference between the chemical bonds in starch and those in cellulose?

cellulose bonds are not hydrolyzed by human enzymes

feature of pectins

used to thicken jelly

not characteristic of fibers

an example of nonpolyssacharide fiber is hemicellulose

function fiber

one that is extracted from plants and has a beneficial health effect

which plays a major role in the breakdown of certain types of dietary fiber in the large intestine?

bacteria

characteristic of dietary fiber

they are classified according to solubility in water

with few exceptions, all of the following characteristics are shared by water-soluble and water-insoluble fiber except:

neither has an appreciable effect on glucose absorption

what type of fiber is readily digested by colonic bacteria?

fermentable

common source of resistant starch

unripe bananas

a feature of resistant starch

it resists hydrolysis by digestive enzymes

characteristic of dietary phytic acid include all of the following except:

it is classified as a fiber

describes the compound of phytic acid

nonnutrient component of plant seeds

which of the following fibers is water insoluble

cellulose

water-solube fibers include all except

lignins

contains the least amount of fiber

white rice

enzymatic digestion of starches takes place in the small intestine and also in the:

mouth

all of the following are properties of fiber except:

it elevates blood glucose levels

what is the name of the short chains of glucose units that result from starch breakdown?

dextrins

which enzyme does not act on simple sugars?

amylase

what is the primary absorption site for digestible carbs

small intestine

after you and your friend Dolores share pretzels and animal crackers, she announces that she wants to start digesting her food by watching TV. You inform Dolores that:

carb digestion beings in the mouth through the action of amylase, so she has already begun digesting the snacks

the enzymes that digest dietary sugars are produced by the

small intestine

what is the primary organ that converts fructose to glucose following absorption

liver

what is the first organ the receive carbs absorbed from the intestine

liver

all the following are symptoms of lactose intolerance except

constipation

percentage of the world's adult population shows good tolerance to lactose ingestion

30

least likely be connected with the development of lactose intolerance

milk allergy

a person diagnosed with milk allergy would be sensitive to the milks

protein

for most of the worlds population, what is the effect of aging on the activity of lactase?

declines by 90-95%

which of the following is a characteristic of yogurt?

bacteria in yogurt produce lactase

what is the chief reason that many people with lactose intolerance can consume foods containing some lactose without suffering any symptoms

a change occurs in the GI bacteria

which of the following is a feature of kefir

it contains live bacterial organisms

among the following foods, which contain the lowest amount of lactose per serving

american cheese

why are hard cheeses lower in lactose than soft cheeses?

more lactose is removed during manufacturing

feature of lactose?

used as a filler in one out of five prescription drugs

which provides the least amount of lactose per serving

cheddar cheese

among the following population groups, which shows the highest prevalence of lactose

African Americans

Which of the following ingredients listed on food labels would be acceptable to the person who is highly intolerant to lactose in the diet?

dextrins

if you were to exercise continuously, about how long would glycogen stores last?

a few hours

what fraction of the body's total glycogen content is found in the liver

1/3

in what organ is most of the body's glycogen found?

muscles

at rest, the typical body stores of glycogen can provide energy for a maximum of about

1 day

what is the minimum daily amount of dietary carbs necessary to spare body protein from excessive breakdown

50-100 grams

what is the primary function of insulin?

lowers blood glucose levels

the process by which an amino acid is used to make glucose is termed

gluconeogenesis

gluconeogenesis is the term that describes the synthesis of

glucose from a noncarbohydrate substance

which of the following values falls within the normal range (mg/dL) of blood glucose?

75

you have just finished a light breakfast of toast and jelly, Which of the following series of events proceeds upon digestion/absorption of the meal until it is near time for lunch?

blood glucose rises, the pancreas releases insulin, glucose is taken up by the cells through the action of insulin, blood glucose levels decline

first organ to respond to an increase in blood glucose concentration

pancreas

normal range (mg/dL) for blood glucose?

70-110

when blood glucose concentration falls, what pancreatic hormone is secreted to stimulate release of stored glucose?

glucagon

which of the following is a typical response of the body to changes in blood glucose

blood glucose levels that fall too low signal the release of glucagon

following blood glucose concentration (mg/dL) is most consistent with hypoglycemia

40

when you are under physical stress, what hormone is released quickly to stimulate an increase in blood glucose concentration

epinephrine

in the time between meals, what organ releases glucose to help maintain normal blood glucose levels

liver

a person fasting with a blood glucose concentration of 129 would be considered

diabetic

what glycemic index category would include yogurt and cheese?

low

a person eating lots of white bread, white rice, and ready to eat cereals would have a diet with a glycemic index that is

high

which of the following is a feature of the condition hypoglycemia?

it occurs rarely in otherwise healthy people

which of the following is a feature of diabetes

dietary management should focus on total carb intake rather than the type of carb consumed

what term describes how quickly glucose is absorbed from a food after ingestion, how high blood glucose rises as a result, and how quickly blood glucose returns to normal

glycemic response

a 101 mg/dL blood glucose level would be considered

prediabetic

which of the following are characteristic of the conditions diabetes and hypoglycemia?

both benefit from the inclusion of fiber-rich foods and consumption of smaller, more frequent meals

your nephew Jimmy, who is 10 years old, has been giving himself a shot in the thigh every day for the past year. He confides in you that he craves candy but was told by his parents that he can only eat sugar free snacks. From which of the following conditions does Jimmy most likely suffer

Type 1 diabetes

which of the following is a feature of diabetes

many people with type 2 are obese

which of the following statements describes the glycemic index of foods

a way of ranking foods according to their potential to increase blood glucose

in a person with type 2 diabetes, which of the following foods would ordinarily promote the least favorable glycemic effect?

baked potato

what is the name of the sweetener consisting of a mixture of glucose and fructose formed by chemical hydrolysis of sucrose

invert-sugar

what is the predominant sweetener used in formulating beverages?

high fructose corn syrup

honey contains

more kCalories per teaspoon than sucrose

which of the following sweeteners contain a significant amount of calcium

molasses

all of the following are features of honey except

it is the preferred sweetener in infant foods

which of the following is best known to result from regular ingestion of sugar?

dental caries

which of the following recommendations will help to reduce the incidence of dental caries when the diet contains sugary foods

eat a sugar snack all at one time, rather than in parts through out the day

which of the following describes a relationship between carb intake and dental health?

eating a sugary dessert at the beginning of a meal, rather than the end is less likely to promote dental caries

approximately how pounds of added sugars are consumed by the average US resident each year?

105 lbs

You have just arrived at a lunch buffet and are faced with many choices. Although each of the following portions provides about 200 kcalories, which is the most nutrient dense?

3 slices of whole wheat bread

approximately how many kcalories are provided by two teaspoons of sugar?

30 kcalories

based on height, weight, age, and physical activity level, you have calculated that you should be consuming about 2,200 kcaloreis per day. which of the following portions is closest to the discretionary kcalories allowed in the USDA food guide for added sugars in your diet?

10 teaspoons of brown sugar

according to the current dietary recommendations, what is the maximum percentage of total energy intake that added sugar should contribute in the diet?

25%

all of the following are features of artificial sweeteners except:

they provide about 1/2 the energy of carbs plus small amounts of vitamins and minerals

what is Stevia?

an herb derived sweetener

which of the following artificial sweeteners has a composition similar to aspartame

Neotame

All of the following components are apart of the chemical structure of aspartame except

methanol group

among the following approved sweeteners, which has the highest relative sweetness?

sucralose

among the alternative sweeteners available in the US, which has a structure that integrates chlorine atoms?

sucralose

which of the following is a characteristic of the sugar replacers (sugar alcohols)

they have a low glycemic index

which of the following is not a classification for the food additives mannitol, sorbitol, and xylitol

artificial sweeteners?

which of the following is a characteristic of the sugar alcohols

they provide kcalories

when consumed in excess, which of the following is most likely to lead to diarrhea

sorbitol

which is a general feature of the sugar alcohol

cannot be metabolized by cariogenic bacteria

what is the approximate energy content (kcals/gram) of most sugar alcohols

2 kcals/gram

which of the following is known to correlate most strongly with reduced risk of deaths from heart disease

high-fiber intake

all of the following foods are rich sources of soluble fiber except

wheat bran

not a feature of high fiber foods

provide more energy per gram than processed foods

modifying a diet that by substituting complex carbs for pure sugars results in a diet that is higher in:

fiber

NOT a characteristic of a high fiber diet

reduce risk of lung cancer, but increase risk of breast cancer

according to most dietary guidelines, what percent of the days total energy intake should be furnished by carbs

45-65%

what is the RDA for carbs

130 grams

Allan is 20 years old and asks for help in selecting a fiber rich diet, after he ranks the kinds of foods he likes to eat, you provide him with a list of food items consisting of

1 cup bake beans, 1 medium apple, 1 banana, 1 1/2 cups oatmeal, 1 ounce of 100% bran cereal, and 1/2 of chopped carrots

according to the american dietetic association, what is the daily value for fiber when expressed in grams per 1000 kcal

11.5 grams/1000 kcals

about how many grams of carbs are contained in one ounce of foods in the grain group

15 grams

what is the DRI for fiber for a person consuming 2500 kcals

35 grams

which provides the most fiber?

1 cup of split peas

all of the following provide about 15 grams of carbs per serving except:

1/2 cup of green beans

what is a feature of dairy products and carbs?

most cheeses provides little, if any carbs

which of the following is a typical response in people following a low carb diet?

total weight lose after one year is the same as people on conventional diets

which is not associated with the regular consumption of sugary beverages?

the fructose stimulates excessive release of insulin, which suppresses appetite

what % of the lipids in foods are triglycerides?

95%

in which form are most dietary lipids found?

triglycerides

what % of stored body fat is in the form of triglycerides?

99%

lipids that are solid at room temp are known as

fats

lipids that are liquid at room temp are known as

oils

what is the chemical composition of fats

glycerol and fatty acids

a compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen with three fatty acids attached to a molecule of glycerol, would be known as:

triglyceride

what compound is composed of three fatty acids and glycerol?

triglyceride

how many double bonds are present in stearic acid

0

what is a property of dietary lipids?

omage-3-fatty acids are always unsaturated

what is the simplest 18 carbon fatty acid

stearic acid

which represents a chief source of short and medium chain fatty acids?

dairy

how many hydrogen atoms are attached to each carbon adjacent to a double bond

1

what is the simplest fatty acid found in the diet?

acetic acid

lipids differ in their degree of saturation or unsaturation due to their number of

double bonds

which of the following is a common dietary saturated fatty acid?

stearic acid

how many carbons are contained in a medium chain fatty acid

6-10

which is a common source of medium chain fatty acids

dairy products

which describes a fatty acid that has one double bond

monounsaturated

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