(prime mover) a muscle that initiates a particular movement
a muscle that contracts to return a body part to its original position, making a movement opposite to that of the agonist
the attached end of a muscle that is more distal or lateral and is at the joint where the primary movement takes place
the more proximal attached end of a muscle
a tough band of connective tissue that connects a bone to another bone
a muscle that assists the agonist
a tough band of connective tissue that connects muscle to bone or muscle to muscle, often serving as an origin or insertion for a muscle
a broad and flattened tendinous sheet of connective tissue, often serving as an origin or insertion for a muscle
a small triangle-shaped muscle of the anterior chest, located deep to the pectoralis major
a muscle with a "saw-toothed" border located on the chest posterolateral and inferior to the pectoralis major
a large, superficial muscle located on the posterior and upper back. Covers many of the deeper muscles of the neck and back. Named for its shape.
a strap-shaped muscle lying deep to the trapezius and lateral to the splenius capitis.
can be seen attached to the superior border of the scapula
located deep to the trapezius and attaches to the medial border (vertebral border) of the scapula and also to the vertebrae. Named for their shape.
Located superior to the rhomboid major. Somewhat strap-shaped.
has attachments to the vertebrae and the medial border of the scapula. Located superior to the rhomboid major.
large triangle-shaped muscle occupying most of the superficial, anterior chest.
caps the shoulder and can be studied on the supine or prone cadaver
The large superficial muscle that occupies most of the mid and lower back.
Forms part of the posterior portion of the axilla (armpit).
lies deep to the trapezius and is located above the spine of the scapula. Forms part of the rotator cuff.
The supraspinatus lies deep to the trapezius and is located ______ the spine of the scapula
a group of muscles that acts to secure the head of the humerus in the glenoid cavity
lies deep to the trapezius and is located below the spine of the scapula.
The infraspinatus lies deep to the trapezius and is located ______ the spine of the scapula.
located along the inferolateral border of the scapula superior to the latissimus dorsi. Enters the posterior arm and inserts at the intertubercular groove of the humerus.
Located just superior to the teres major and then inserts at the greater tubercle of the humerus.
Tendon of the long head of the triceps brachii
passes between the teres minor and teres major
Muscles of rotator cuff
Located in the subscapular fossa. Primary action is medial rotation of the arm.
Primary action is medial rotation of the arm
has two heads and is located on the anterior arm.
both origins are located on the scapula (coracoid process and supraglenoid tubercle) and it inserts at the radial tuberosity
Coracoid Process and Supraglenoid Tubercle of the scapula
origins of the biceps brachii
lies deep to the biceps brachii, but a portion of it can be seen lateral to the biceps brachii
Superficial muscle of the lateral forearm. Passes over the anterior forearm and inserts just above the styloid process of the radius. Inserts on the anterior surface of the forearm, and therefore flexes the arm.
Brachioradialis inserts on the anterior surface of the forearm, and therefore _____ the arm
Styloid Process of the Radius
The brachioradialis passes over the anterior forearm and inserts just above the ________
has three points of origin, forms most of the posterior arm. Three heads have a common insertion at the olecranon process of the ulna
Olecranon Process of the Ulna
Three heads of the triceps have a common insertion at the _______
the flexor carpi radialis, flexor carpi ulnaris, and palmaris longus are located on the _____ surface of the forearm, adjacent to the brachioradialis
anterior forearm muscle located between the brachioradialis and flexor carpi radialis; pronates the forearm
a band of fascia that secures tendons of the anterior forearm muscles at the wrist
The extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi ulnaris, and extensor digitorum are located on the _______ forearm
adjacent to the extensor carpi ulnaris
the extensor carpi radialis longus is next to the _______
tendons of the posterior forearm muscles are held in place by the _______
a group of three muscles that make up the eminence at the "ball" of the thumb. Originate around the flexor retinaculum
three thenar muscles originate around the _______
abductor pollicis brevis
flexor pollicis brevis
flex, oppose, and abduct the thumb
actions of the thenar muscles
a group of three muscles that form the eminence at the "ball" of the little finger.
abductor digiti minimi
flexor digiti minimi brevis
opponens digiti minimi
flex, abduct, and oppose the little finger
actions of the hypothenar muscles
anatomical landmark dividing the anterior and posterior triangles of the neck
extends from the sternum and clavicle to the mastoid process of the temporal bone
lateral rotation of the head and neck when one contracts; neck flexion when both contract
small, flat muscles that insert on the first two ribs
aid in forced inspiration and neck flexion
a group of overlapping muscles of the axial skeleton, located adjacent to the spinal column
erector spinae are a group of overlapping muscles located adjacent to the _______
Longissimus, spinalis, iliocostalis
columns of muscles in the erector spinae
most medial of the muscles in the erector spinae
often considered as a continuation of the erector spinae
lies deep to the superior region of the trapezius muscle
large muscle forming the posterior region of the abdominal wall.
when both quadratus lumborum contract together, they aid in _________
flexes the vertebral column laterally
when a single quadratus lumborum contracts alone, it _______
subclavian, axillary, and brachial arteries
main arteries supplying the muscles of the arm
radial and ulnar arteries
main arteries supplying the muscles of the forearm and hand
blood supply of the rhomboids major and minor, levator scapulae, supraspinatus, and infraspinatus
receives its arterial supply from both the subclavian artery and branches of the external carotid artery
blood supply of biceps brachii, brachialis, brachioradialis, and triceps brachii
receives its arterial supply from both the axillary and brachial artery
blood supply of pectoralis major and minor, serratus anterior, deltoid, latissimus dorsi, and teres major and minor
supply the extensors on the anterior forearm (extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor carpi radialis brevis, and extensor carpi ulnaris) and thenar group
supply flexors on the forearm (flexor carpi radialis, flexor carpi ulnaris, palmaris longus, and pronator teres) and the hypothenar group
The radial and ulnar veins drain into the ______
the brachial vein becomes the ______ in the armpit region
the axillary vein drains into the _______
deep veins course ______ to the arteries of identical names
lies superficially and laterally on the arm. Drains into the axillary vein between the deltoid muscle and pectoralis major
the cephalic vein drains into the _____ between the deltoid muscle and pectoralis major
lies medially along the arm and drains with the brachial vein to form the axillary vein
median cubital vein
connects the cephalic vein with the basilic vein in the antecubital fossa.
medial cubital vein
often used for withdrawal of blood samples
ventral rami of spinal nerves C1-C4
cervical nerves arise from the ________, and supply the levator scapulae and skin of the neck and shoulder
cervical nerves 3-5
in addition to the dorsal scapular nerve, ______ supplies the levator scapulae
ventral rami of cervical nerves 5-8 and thoracic nerve 1 (C5-C8 and T1)
the brachial plexus is a system of nerves originating from the ____________ . Supply the shoulder and upper limb
Musculocutaneous, Medial, and Ulnar nerves
3 large nerves that arise from the lateral and medial cords of the brachial plexus
most lateral of nerves in the "M" of brachial plexus
nerve that serves the biceps brachii and brachialis muscles
middle nerve in the "M" of brachial plexus
serves the anterior forearm muscles and the thenar muscles of the thumb
most medial limb of the "M" of brachial plexus
supplies the anterior forearm and hypothenar muscles
axillary and radial nerves
arise from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus; form the two arms of "Y" with posterior cord forming the stem
travels through the axilla and supplies the deltoid and teres minor muscles
supplies the deltoid and teres minor muscles
large nerve supplying the triceps brachii, brachioradialis, and posterior forearm muscles
long thoracic nerve
nerve that arises from branches of ventral rami C5-C7 and supplies the serratus anterior muscle
long thoracic nerve
supplies the serratus anterior muscle (nerve)
medial and lateral pectoral nerves
branch from the medial and lateral cords of the brachial plexus to supply the pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles
dorsal scapular nerve
branches from the ventral rami of C5 and supplies the levator scapulae and the rhomboids major and minor muscles
arises from the posterior cord and branches of lower cervical nerves; supplies the teres major muscle
subscapular nerve arises from the ________ and branches of lower cervical nerves
single muscle supplied by the subscapular nerve
thoracolumbar fascia; thoracodorsal nerve
the latissimus dorsi originates partly at the sacrum and ilium via the ________, and is supplied by the ________ nerve and axillary artery branches
branches from C5 and C6 to supply the supraspinatus and infraspinatus
large, superficial muscle forming the majority of the buttock
lies deep to the gluteus maximus, sandwiched in between the gluteus maxiums and minimus
covers a portion of the external surface of the ilium. It is the smallest of the gluteal muscles
a lateral rotator of the thigh, inferior to the gluteus maximus
the _______ passes under the piriformis to enter the posterior thigh
superior and inferior gemellus
located deep to the gluteus maximus and inferior to the piriformis muscle
lies deep to the gluteus maximus and originates at the gluteal tuberosity
______ group: gracilis, pectineus, adductor longus, adductor brevis, and adductor magnus
adducting the thigh
primary action of gracilis, pectineus, adductor longus, adductor brevis, and adductor magnus
most medial of thigh muscles
strap-shaped muscle located along the medial border of the thigh; adducts the thigh and flexes leg at knee joint
located lateral to the gracilis
located superolateral to the gracilis
viewed between the gracilis and semimembranosus on posterior thigh
long, strap-shaped muscle extending diagonally across the anterior thigh from the ASIS to the superior medial surface of the tibia.