Study of Language

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105 terms

linguistic performance

the way that they produce and comprehend language

linguistic competence

hidden knowledge of language

noise

interference in chain of communication

phonology

distribution of speech sounds

morphology

studies of the rules for forming admissible words

semnantics

interpreting meaning

lexicon

consists of the collection of all the words that you know

grammar

language system

descriptive grammar

the rules that someone has deduced based on observing speakers linguistic performance

mental grammar

all the rules that an individual speaker uses to produce and comprehend utterances

writing

representation of language in a physical meduim differnt from sound

reasons that speech is more basic than writing

1. archeological evidence, 2. writing does not exist everywhere, 3. writing must be taught, 4. neurolinguistics evidence, 5, writing can be edited, 6. more stable

prescriptive grammar

socially correct grammar

mode of communication

the menas by which these messages are transmitte and reieved

semanticity

property requiring that all signals in a communication system have a meaning for function

pragmatic function

must serve some useful function

interchangability

ability of individuals to both transmit and recieve messages

cultural transmission

aspects of language that we can aquire only through communicatiove interaction with other users of the system

linguistic sign

form + meaning = linguistic sign

arbitrary

the meaning is not in anyway predictable from the form, nor is the form dictated by the meaning

sound symbolism

certain sounds occur in words not by virtue of being directly imitative of some sound but by being evocative of a particular meaning

displacement

abilty of language to communicate about things, actions, and ideas that are not present in space or time where the speakers are

productivity

languages capacity for novel messages to be built out of discrete units

formal languages

formal logic used to write mathematical proofs and various computer languages

natural languages

those languages that have evolved naturally in a speech community, a child can acquire it

constructed languages

has been invented by a human that may or not imitate all the properties of a natural language

modality

mode of communication

code

artificially constructed system for representing a natural language, no structure of its own but borrows it structure form the natural language that it represents

ways to study forming speech sounds

x-ray, palatography, sound spectrograph, impressionistic phonetic transcription

phone

one sound

segments

discrete units of the speech stream and can be further subdivided into the categories consonants and vowel

suprasegmentals

apply to entire strings of consonants and vowels (stress, tone, intonations)

syllable

unit of speech

nucleus

vocalic part of a syllable

coda

final consonants in a syllable

onset

consonants before the vowel in a syllable

running or continuous speech

phrases and sentences that we speak in

articulation

motion or position of some part of the vocal tract with respect to some other part of the vocal tract in the production of a speech sound

segmantal features

voicing, place, and manner of articulation

larynx

contians the vocal folds and glottis

vocal tract

above the larynx which is composed if the oral and nasal cavities

subglottal system

part of the respiratory system located below the larynx

pulmonic

lung

egrssive

blowing out

airstream mechanism

how the air moving through the vocal tract is powered

spectrogram

picture of the acoustic signal

length

some speech sounds are longer than others

intonation

pattern of pitch movements across a stretch of speech such as a sentence

pitch accents

involve a change in fundamental frequency in the middle of an utterance

edge tones

occurs at the end of a phrase

stress

property of entire syllables, stressed syllables are more prominent and are louder and longer

5 key parameters of signed languages

place of articulation, movement, hand shape, hand orientation, non-manual markers

primes

fundamental elements

phonotactic restraints

restrictions on possible combinations of sounds

sound substitution

sounds that exist in a language a speaker knows are used to replace sounds that do not exist in that language when pronoucing the words if a forgien language

aspiration

puff of air

phoneme

a class of speech sounds that seem to be of the same sound

allophone

corresponds to an actual phonetic segment produced by a speaker

distribution

a phone is the set of phonetic environments in which it occurs

contrastive distribution

a case in which the 2 sounds occur in the same phonetic environment and using one rather than another changes the meaning of the word

minimal pair

a pair of words whose pronunciations differ by one sound and that have different meaning

alternation

a differnec between 2 or more phonetic forms that you might otherwise expect to be related

complementary distribution

never be a minimal pair, found in different environments

free variation

does not make a difference in meaning

overlapping distribution

can occur in the same environment

natural class

group of sounds in a language that share one or more articulatory or auditory property to exclusion of all other sounds in that language

silibants

high, hissing quality [s, $, t$, z, 3, d3]

obstruents

obstruction of the airflow, stops, fricatives, afficates

sonerants

segments produced with a relatively open passage for the air flow, nasals, glides, and vowels

assimilation

causing a sound to become more like another sound

dissimilation

two close sounds become more unlike each other

insertion

cause a segment not present at the phonemic level to be added to the phonetic form of a word

deletion

eliminates a sound that was present at the phonemic level

metathesis

change the order of sounds

strengthening

makes sounds stronger

weakening

cause sounds to become weaker

implicational law

the presence of the less common sound implies that the more common sound will also be used in the language

form

whata word sounds like when it is spoken

lexical categories

parts of speech

closed lexical categories

rarely gain new words, pronouns, determiners, prepositions, conjunctions

determiners

articles

derivation

takes one word and performs one or more operations on it and it becomes another word, usually of a different lexical category

inflection

different grammatical forms of a word, does not change lexical category

free morphemes

can be used as a word all by itself

bound roots

some sort of meaning, but cannot stand alone

content morpheme

more concrete meaning than function morphemes

function morpheme

has grammatically relevant information

compounding

putting 2 or more independent words together

reduplication

process of forming new words by repeating them

alternations

process that uses morpheme-internal modifications to make new words of morphological distinctions

suppletion

a root will have one or more inflected forms unrelated to the word

internal variation

within a language there are single ways of expressing the same thing

siociolinguistics

study of the relationship between language varieties and social structure as well as the interrealtionships among different language varieties

accent

systematic phonological variation

speech comunity

group of people speaking the same dialect

extralinguistic feathures

region, socioeconomic status, age and gender and ethnicity

dialect continuum

a large number of continuous dialects are closely related when next to each other, but those who are far are mutually unintelligible

speech styles

systematic variations in speech based inn factors such as topic, setting, and adressee

register

levels of speech formality

style shifting

automatically shifting from one speech style to another

perscriptive standard

standard by which we make judgements of right and wrong

overt prestige

dialect used by the offical and media

covert prestige

trying to fit in with a group

isoglosses

boundries of areas where a particular lingustic form is used

double modal

indicate that a plan has a high degree of tentativeness, used in the South

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