← jzwliu's anatomy chp 9 - joints Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All Joint Same as articulation, arthrosis Synarthrosis An immovable joint. Amphiarthrosis A slightly movable joint. Diarthrosis A freely movable joint. Fibrous joints Joints that are formed by solid mass of connective tissue between the neighboring bones, which have connective tissue masses of dense irregular connective tissue. Cartilaginous joints Use some type of cartilage as the connecting tissue between the bones. Synovial joints Joints that incorporate a lubricated cavity (synovial cavity). Ligaments Dense irregular or dense regular connective tissue structures that bind one bone to another bone. Sprain Damage to connective tissue. Suture joint A fibrous joint composed of a thin layer of dense irregular connective tissue called sutural ligament. Synostosis A joint in which there is a complete fusion of two separate bones into one. Syndesmoses A fibrous joint in which there is a greater distance between the articulating surfaces and more dense irregular connective tissue than in sutures. Ex. tibiofibular joint. Gomphosis In which a cone-shaped peg fits into a socket. Ex. articulations between the roots of the teeth and their sockets in the maxillae and mandible. Interosseous membrane Substantial sheet of dense irregular connective tissue that binds neighboring long bones and permits slight movement. Ex. between radius and ulna. Cartilaginous joint In these joints, there is a solid connective tissue that allows little or no movement. The articulating bones are tightly connected, either by hyaline cartilage or by fibrocartilage. Synchondroses An immovable, cartilaginous joint in which the connecting material is hyaline cartilage. Ex. Epiphyseal plate that connects the epiphysis and diaphysis. Symphyses A cartilaginous joint in which the ends of the articulating bones are covered with hyaline cartilage, but the bones are connected by a broad, flat disc of fibrocartilage. Ex. pubic symphysis. Synovial joints A type of joints with the presence of a space which is surrounded by connective tissue capsule that attaches the articulating bones. Articular cartilage The bone surfaces within the capsule of a synovial joint which is covered by hyaline cartilage. Articular capsule Capsule that surrounds a synovial joint, encloses the synovial cavity, and unites the articulating bones. Consists of two layers: fibrous membrane and inner synovial membrane. Fibrous membrane Consists of dense irregular connective tissue (mostly collagen fibers) that attaches to the periosteum of the articulating bones. Synovial membrane The inner layer of the articular capsule. Composed of areolar connective tissue with elastic fibers. Synovial Secreted by the synovial membrane. Forms a thin film over the surfaces within the articular capsule. It reduces friction by lubricating the joint, and absorbing shocks. Articular discs Fibrocartilage structures not covered by synovial membrane that divide the synovial cavity into two smaller cavities. Menisci Incomplete disc that partially divide the joint. Labrum The fibrocartilaginous lip that extends from the edge of the joint socket. Bursae Saclike structures strategically situated to alleviate friction around some joints, such as the shoulder and knee joints. Tendon (synovial) sheaths Tubelike bursae that wrap around tendons experiencing considerable friction on all sides as they pass through fibro-osseus tunnels. Plane joint Joint that allow side-to-side and back-and-forth gliding movement between the flat surfaces of bone, but bones may also rotate against one another. Hinge joint The convex surface of one bone fits into the concave surface of another bone. Only permits flexion and extension. Ed. elbow. Pivot joint The rounded or pointed surface of one bone articulates with a ring formed partly by another bone and partly by a ligament. Uniaxial movement because it allows rotation around its own longitudinal axis only. Ex. radius. Condyloid joints The convex oval-shaped projection of one bone fits into the oval-shaped depression of another bone.It's a biaxial joint because it permits movment around two axis (flexion-extension and abduction-adduction). Ex. index finger. Saddle joint The articular surface of one bone is saddle-shaped, and the articular surface of the other bone fits into the "saddle" as a sitting rider would. Movement allowed is biaxial (flexion-extension and abduction-adduction). Ex. carpometacarpal joint. Ball-and-socket joint Consists of the ball-like surface of one bone fitting into a cuplike depression of another bone. Such joints are triaxial. Ex. Hip joint. Gliding A simple movement in which relatively flat bone surfaces move back-and forth and from side-to-side with respect to one another. Angular movements There is an increase or decrease in the angle between articulating bones. Flexion There is a decrease in the angle between articulating bones. Extension There is an increase in the angle between articulating bones. Lateral flexion A flexion not along the sagittal plane. Hyperextension Continuation of extension beyond the anatomical position. Abduction The movement of a bone away from the midline. Adduction Movement of a bone toward the midline. Circumduction Movement of the distal end of a body part in a circle. It's not an isolated movement by itself but rather a continuous sequence of flexion, abduction, extension, adduction, and rotation. Rotation A bone revolves around its own longitudinal axis. Special movements Movements that occur only at certain joints. Elevation An upward movement of a part of the body, such as closing the mouth at the temporomandibular joint to elevate the mandible or shrugging the shoulders at the acromioclavicular joint to elevate the scapula and clavicle. Depression A downward movement of a part of the body. Protraction Movement of a part of the body anteriorly in the transverse plane. Ex. mandible at the temporomandibular joint thrusting outward. Retraction Movement of a protrated part of the body back to the anatomical position. Inversion Movement of the sole medially at the intertarsal joints. Eversion Movement of the sole laterally at the intertarsal joints. Dorsiflexion Bending of the foot at the ankle or talocrural joint in the direction of the dorsum (superior surface). Plantar flexion Bending of the foot at the ankle joint in the direction of the plantar or inferior surface. Supination Movement of the forearm at the proximal and distal radioulnar joints that turns the palm anteriorly. Pronation Movement of the forearm at the proximal and distal radioulnar joints in which the distal end of the radius crosses over the distal end of the ulna and the palm is turned posteriorly. Opposition The movement of the thumb at the carpometacarpal joint in which the thumb moves across the palm to touch the tips of the fingers on the same hand. Range of motion The range, measured in degrees of a circle, through which the bones of the joint can be moved.